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Effective Education for All

Implementing Positive Behavior Support in Early Childhood Through High School


Edited By Chun Zhang, Carlos McCray and Su-Je Cho

Effective Education for All deals with cultural-linguistic diversity and how to work in classrooms with culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students. It is essential reading for teachers, administrators, parents of CLD students, and policy makers if we are to continue to see progress and success from our graduates. This book is both practical and helpful for educators and their schools in offering Positive Behavior Support (PBS), illustrating key steps in understanding the problem and research on cultural-linguistic diversity. The authors offer resources to help educators and their families to understand the failures and successes with these students within the context of their particular schools and communities. What works with one group and age cohort may change as students develop within local and regional contexts.
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4. Effective Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports for Students in Early Years and Grades: Practices and Policies



Current Status of Diversity in Schools

A report from the U.S. Department of Education, The Condition of Education 2011, uses national statistical data to provide information about the latest trends in education (Aud et al., 2011). The report summarizes recent demographic data of school-aged students and their teachers. Ford (2012) highlights three undeniable realities that are revealed in the report. First, students attending U.S. public schools are more racially, ethnically, and linguistically diverse than ever before. Next, the diversity in schools is expected to continue to grow. Finally, despite the rapid changes in student demographics, the racial and ethnic demographics of educators remain relatively unchanged, with data showing that 85% of teachers are White and 75% are female (Aud et al., 2011).

Achievement Gap and Discipline Gap

According to national tests of academic achievement, students from certain racial groups score significantly lower than those from other groups. More specifically, research indicates that African American, Hispanic, and Native American students are not performing as well as Euro-American or Asian American students (Ogbu, 2003; Planty, Provasnik, & Daniel, 2007). This trend is commonly referred to as “the achievement gap” and the differences ← 67 | 68 → in performance correspond closely with differences in socioeconomic and racial status. Although the achievement gap appears to be narrowing, the differences are still substantial and continue to raise concerns. Also, national statistics reveal the continuing trend of disproportionality or overrepresentation...

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