Implementing Positive Behavior Support in Early Childhood Through High School
Edited By Chun Zhang, Carlos McCray and Su-Je Cho
4. Effective Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports for Students in Early Years and Grades: Practices and Policies
CHUN ZHANG, ANGIE CHAI, AND KWANG-SUN CHO BLAIR
Current Status of Diversity in Schools
A report from the U.S. Department of Education, The Condition of Education 2011, uses national statistical data to provide information about the latest trends in education (Aud et al., 2011). The report summarizes recent demographic data of school-aged students and their teachers. Ford (2012) highlights three undeniable realities that are revealed in the report. First, students attending U.S. public schools are more racially, ethnically, and linguistically diverse than ever before. Next, the diversity in schools is expected to continue to grow. Finally, despite the rapid changes in student demographics, the racial and ethnic demographics of educators remain relatively unchanged, with data showing that 85% of teachers are White and 75% are female (Aud et al., 2011).
Achievement Gap and Discipline Gap
According to national tests of academic achievement, students from certain racial groups score significantly lower than those from other groups. More specifically, research indicates that African American, Hispanic, and Native American students are not performing as well as Euro-American or Asian American students (Ogbu, 2003; Planty, Provasnik, & Daniel, 2007). This trend is commonly referred to as “the achievement gap” and the differences ← 67 | 68 → in performance correspond closely with differences in socioeconomic and racial status. Although the achievement gap appears to be narrowing, the differences are still substantial and continue to raise concerns. Also, national statistics reveal the continuing trend of disproportionality or overrepresentation...
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