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Observing «and» Analyzing Communication Behavior

John A. Courtright

This is a book about communication behavior: how we conceptualize it, observe it, measure it, and analyze it.
The 1970s and 1980s were times when communication behavior was a primary interest of many communication scholars. The aim of this book is to reignite some interest in and passion about how human communication behavior should be studied. It presents the best advice, techniques, cautions, and controversies from the 1970s and 1980s and then updates them. Several chapters also introduce statistical methods and procedures to allow readers to analyze behavioral data.
This book is a useful resource for communication scholars and graduate students to guide their study of communication behavior.
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Appendix 9.1 Test for First- Versus Second–Order Markov Process


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Appendix 9.1

Test for First- versus Second- Order Markov Process

The goal of this Appendix is to demonstrate how to use simple spreadsheet manipulations to make the calculations of the Pearson X2 and the LRX2 much simpler and less time consuming. Although some initial numbers must be typed into the spreadsheet, most of the work is done by “dragging and dropping” formulas. Whenever a specific cell reference is used, it is applicable to this demonstration only. When doing these calculations with a different number of codes in the coding scheme, adjustments to cell references will have to be made.

The Pearson X2

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