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Data Rights Law 1.0

The Theoretical Basis

Key Laboratory of Big Data Strategy

Edited By Yuming Lian

Since its emergence, big data has brought us new forms of energy, technology and means of organization which will generate greater values by crossover, integration, openness and sharing of data. Nevertheless, risks caused by open access and the flow of data also bring us enormous challenges to privacy, business secrets and social and national securities. This raises people’s awareness on data sharing, privacy protection and social justice, and becomes a significant governance problem in the world. In order to solve these problems, Data Rights Law 1.0 is innovative in that it proposes a new concept of the «data person». It defines «data rights» as the rights derived from the «data person» and «data rights system» as the order based on «data rights». «Data rights law» is the legal normative formed out of the «data rights system». In this way, the book constructs a legal framework of «data rights-data rights system-data rights law». If data is considered as basic rights, on which new order and laws are to be built, it will bring brand new and profound meaning to future human life.

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Index

actual data rights 156158, 162, 164

altruism xxiii, 90, 134, 197, 199, 202

attribute of the right 98, 99

Data Rights Attributes 152

new right attribute 249

Rights Attribute of “Personal Information” 153

automata 238

block data 67, 21, 2632, 48, 211, 230, 244, 247249

Block Data Paradigm 21

borderless sharing 134

chaos theory 40

cloud-brain age 15

see also era of cloud-brain

Collingridge dilemma 205

commercialization of personality right 107, 153

computer age 15

confirming of rights and duties and settlement of disputes 161

control right 129, 131

data are valued xx

data collection xx, 18, 27, 31, 7172, 125

data collection right xx

data combination 2324

data congestion 31

data control rights 129, 131

data disorder 21, 30, 40

data empowerment 44

data explosion 23, 26, 93, 110

data integration 24, 27

data monopoly 30, 49, 173, 185, 201

data of public benefits 183188

data ownership system xxii, 155, 165, 173, 249

data person xixxxi, xxiii, 42, 51, 71, 81, 97, 105, 107, 116, 137, 159, 252

data property right xx, 25, 42, 97, 98, 105, 114115, 118, 124, 137

data relation xix, 2, 2324, 46, 230

data rights enjoyed by data owners 175

see also individuals may enjoy their legitimate interests of data rights

data rights sharing system 195202

data rights subject 180, 198199

data rights system xix, xxiixxix, 119, 145, 155169, 171181, 183191, 195203, 247251

data sovereignty xx, xxii, xxiv, xxvii, 42, 44, 88, 91, 99, 102, 128133, 147152

data transaction xxii, 111, 172, 208

data trans-boundary 16

data usufruct xx, xxiii, 174, 178179, 184, 192, 249

digital civilization xxiv, xxv, xxvii, xxix, 1, 5, 23, 44, 4647, 51, 8790, 155159, 164166

digital economy xxii, xxviixxix, 5, 41, 51, 125, 180, 206212

digital intelligence society 229232

digital order xxiii, 57, 2536, 42, 4447

digital society 15, 17, 20, 22, 27, 133, 164, 206207, 211, 216, 225, 241

digital space 5, 22, 44, 134← 255 | 256 →

economic man 8889, 99, 104

egoism 102

equal rights 69

see also right to equality

era of cloud-brain 248

see also cloud-brain age

era of labour combination 11

establishing rights for data 97

see also granting rights to data

exclusiveness 81, 87, 99, 136, 207

fair use regime of data ownership 173

first-generation human rights 5963

fourth industrial revolution 84, 238239

gene man 239, 242243

government data 182183, 186

granting rights to data 46

see also establishing rights for data

human brain age 15

human rights xix, xx, 37, 5152, 5479, 83104, 156, 202, 236, 247

hyper-data era 31

idealistic data rights 156158, 162

important strength of social control 219

see also other forces of social control, other social control forces

individuals may enjoy their legitimate interests of data rights 199

see also data rights enjoyed by data owners

information Internet 4, 4042

interest-driven theory of human rights 61

see also interest theory of human rights

interest theory of human rights 61

see also interest-driven theory of human rights

law of entropy generation 8

legal person data 182

limited domination 186

making the best use of data xxi, xxiii

moral man 99

multiple ownerships for one data xxi, 133134, 213, 248

natural fructus 178

natural person xx, 80, 91, 95, 9999, 101, 116, 119, 123, 138, 141, 167, 176, 238, 242

need for order 43

new type of personality right 105, 106, 107, 116, 118

non-exclusive 111, 115

object of data rights xxii, 98, 119, 120, 124, 186

object of the right 97, 116

one ownership for one object xxi, 78, 127, 133, 166167, 194, 248

order Internet 4, 3942

other forces of social control 215

see also other social control forces, important strength of social control

other social control forces 214

see also other forces of social control, important strength of social control

ownership of data right 162163

personal

personal data xx, xxi, xxiixxiii, xxviii, 24, 31, 42, 88, 92, 107108, 115118, 123189

personal data rights xx, 4, 88, 108, 116, 138, 142, 187188

personality rights xx, 42, 72, 88, 97107, 114, 116, 118, 123126, 137142

personality right of data xx

point data 2628, 142

political man 99, 142

power of self-defense 147

see also right to self-defense ← 256 | 257 →

powers and functions of right 98, 99, 249

privacy

personal privacy xxiv, 5, 25, 71, 140, 141, 190

privacy law 126

privacy laws of the United States 140

privacy protection xix, 108, 126, 132, 140

privacy rights 123, 126, 127, 140, 142

right to privacy 124

private right xxixxii, 3, 8081, 8687, 99, 106, 121, 137153, 181185, 196, 241

private right attribute of data 199

private subject 73, 87

properties are tangible xxi, 165166, 248

property order 208

property right xx, xxi, 23, 25, 37, 42, 46, 53, 59, 62, 98, 109, 124, 136

property right law 124

public domain data 182, 186187

public domain products 182

public power 81, 121, 137, 142153, 187

public right attribute of data 184

public welfare 166, 181, 184, 186

regulation of social norms 233

see also social norm control system, system of social norm regulation and control

remixing xxiii, 628, 46, 248

remixing culture 18

remixing era 11, 19, 248

res corporales 73, 75, 7780, 87, 100102, 122, 166

restricted data rights 175, 176, 177

right of control 148

see also right to process 169

right of freedom 66

right over other person’s data 176, 179

see also rights enjoyed by others

rights enjoyed by others 175

see also right over other person’s data

right structure 7

right to be forgotten xxiii

right to benefit from data xxiii

see also right to dispose, usufructuary data rights, usufructuary right of data

right to dispose 79, 8081, 144, 138, 171

see also usufructuary data rights, right to benefit from data, usufructuary right of data

right to equality 53, 56

see also equal rights

rights to information network dissemination 109

see also right to spread knowledge

right to modify data xx

right to process 169

see also right of control

right to replicate 169

right to self-defense 53

see also power of self-defense

right to self-jurisdiction 53

right to spread knowledge 93

see also rights to information network dissemination

second-generation human rights 6263

shared civilization 47

sharing economy 135, 192194

sharing rights xx, xxiii, 88, 101, 119, 192, 248

sharing society 135, 197, 240

sharing system xxii, 155, 192, 194202, 249

singularity man 242, 243

small data era 23

social man 8889, 104, 115 ← 257 | 258 →

social norm control system 234

see also regulation of social norms, system of social norm regulation and control

special remedies 187

spontaneous order 34, 4344

state of nature 5354, 61, 74, 75

statutory category of data rights 160161

statutory content 161

statutory data rights xxii, 157164

statutory fructus 178

statutory system of data rights 155, 156, 158, 159, 161, 162, 249

strip data 2627

subjects of data rights for public interests are a compound 188

system of data rights for public interests xxii, 155, 181, 185, 249

system of data usufruct xxii, 249

system of social norm regulation and control 234

see also regulation of social norms, social norm control system

terminable data rights 177

theory of data property right 106, 114, 118

theory of human nature 52, 56, 100

theory of instinctive human rights 61

see also theory of natural human rights, theory of natural rights

theory of intellectual property 106, 108, 116, 128, 203

theory of moral rights 52, 57

theory of natural human rights 61

see also theory of instinctive human rights, theory of natural rights

theory of natural rights 3, 5255, 61, 69

see also theory of natural human rights, theory of instinctive human rights

theory of social rights 52, 55, 56

theory of trade secrets 106, 110, 117

third-generation human rights 60, 6465

transfer of ownership 172

transfer of rights 115

type of rights 80, 88, 122, 166, 179, 249

usufructuary data rights 155, 174181, 188

see also right to benefit from data, right to dispose, usufructuary right of data

usufructuary right of data xx

see also right to benefit from data, right to dispose, usufructuary data rights

value Internet 4, 4042

virtual property 78, 127, 141