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European Union Foreign Policy and the Global Climate Regime

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Simon Schunz

Ever since the first international negotiations on climate change in the early 1990s, the European Union has aspired to play a leading role in global climate politics.
This book engages in a longitudinal analysis of the EU’s participation in and impact on the United Nations climate regime.
It provides not only comprehensive insights into the evolution of EU foreign climate policy, but also a thought-provoking audit of the potential and limits of the EU’s influence in a major domain of global affairs.
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← 364 | 365 →Index

A

Actorness 34

Actor capacity 25, 34–5, 38–9, 46, 51–3, 60, 73–5, 111, 116, 125, 135, 149, 154, 166, 247–9, 254, 274, 278, 282–3, 290–2, 294–5, 298, 302–3, 306–8

Adaptation, see Climate change

Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-Term Cooperative Action 44, 173, 178, 180–4, 188, 193, ­198­–9, 201, 205, 209–10, 222, 225, ­233–5, 258–63, 265–8, 277

Ad Hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate 67, 70, 76, 78, 80–90, 92, 98–102, 104, 116, 277

Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action 262–3, 265, 267–8, 273, 277

Ad Hoc Working Group on the Kyoto Protocol 138–44, 167, 171–3, 175, 178, 180–1, 184–5, 188–9, 191, 193–6, 198–9, 201–2, 206, 209–11, 222, 225, 233, 242, 258, 260–3, 265–8, 277

African Group 163, 201, 211–3, 240, 304

African Union 163, 182, 190, 222

Alliance of Small-Island States 44, 53, 55, 57, 66, 72, 77–9, 81–2, 84, 89, 95, 101–6, 116–7, 127, 131, 133, 143, 145, 159, 163, 172, 183, 189, 193, 205, 213, 216, 220, ­223–4, 234–5, 238, 254, 258, 260–2, 270–1, 274, 277, 284–6, 304, 308

Argentina 79, 90, 116–8, 132, 152

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation 153, 202, 231–2, 236–7, 249

Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate Change 134–5, 147, 149, 153, 155, 157, 161–2, 279

Assessment Report of the IPCC

Fifth 21, 276

Fourth 21, 25, 135, 153, 165, 170, 173, 223

Third 114, 127, 130

Second 68, 82

First 50, 52

Australia 24, 44, 50, 53, 55, 66, 68, 71, 78, 81, 84–5, 87, 90, 94, 96, 98, 114–5, 118–9, 122, 126, 133–5, 138, 140, 143, 149, 152, 159, 161, 177, 186, 189, 192, 202, 205, 213, 229, 237–8, 245, 247, 253–4, 259, 265, 268, 285, 298

B

Bali Roadmap 151, 172, 175–6, 178, 184, 192, 196, 201, 232–5, 239, 260, 267–8, 289

BASIC 159, 163, 200, 220, 224, 232, 238–9, 242–4, 247, 254, 270–1, 277–8, 281, 284–6

← 365 | 366 →Berlin Mandate 24, 67, 78, 80–3, 85–7, 89, 91–2, 101–2, 105–6, 232, 289

Brazil 56, 71–2, 90, 92, 134, 152, 159, 162–3, 168, 178, 180, 204, 211, 213, 226, 237, 254, 304

BRIC 152

Buenos Aires Plan of Action 117–8, 121–2

Burden-sharing 84–5, 87, 91, 100, 106–7, 115, 128, 228

Byrd-Hagel resolution 89, 109

C

Canada 40, 50, 53, 61, 66, 68, 71, 81, 84, 90–1, 94, 96, 114, 119, 121, 126–7, 130, 136, 140, 142–3, 158–9, 172–4, 234, 253, 260–1, 268, 272

Cancun Agreements 17, 20, 25, 251, 253, 260–1, 265–8, 273

Cartagena Group 254, 259–62, 264, 274, 308

Case study 23, 27, 41

Methodology 20, 42, 205, 305

Causal mechanism 35–6, 42, 110, 112, 148, 244, 287–8, 298

Arguing 25, 31–2, 35–6, 46, 53, 63, 72, 80, 82, 89, 92, 100, 109, 115, 120, 129, 140, 145, 169, 181, 230, 243–5, 247, 258, 260, 270, 275–7, 279–81, 285, 287–91, 293, 297–9, 301, 303

Bargaining 25, 31–2, 35–6, 38, 46, 59, 61, 63–4, 92, 100–1, 107, ­109–12, 125, 127, 133, 147–9, 200, 228, 230, 242, 244, 247–8, 270, 275–7, 279, 281, 284–5, 287–91, 293–7, 299, 303

Causality 25

Conditionality 229, 288, 296, 309

Conjunctive causality 25, 294, 296, 298, 303

China 25, 44, 52–3, 55–7, 61, 68, 71–2, 78–9, 81–3, 85, 89–90, 92, 95, 98, 102–5, 108–12, 115, 117–23, 127, 129–36, 138–40, 142–5, 149, 152, 155–7, 159–63, 168, 171–6, 178–81, 186–90, 193, 197–200, 202–7, 209–14, 216, 218, 220, 223, 226–7, 229, 232–4, 236–40, 243–4, 246–7, 253–4, 257–8, 260–4, 267, 271, 280–1, 284, 294–7, 304, 308–9

Clean Development Mechanism 97, 113, 117, 129–30, 132, 138, 178, 262, 286

Climate change

Adaptation 22, 40, 99, 121, 126–7, 129, 132, 135–9, 141, 143, 152, 163, 173, 181, 183–6, 190, 192, 196–7, 199, 201, 207, 212, 229, 261, 266–7, 286, 293, 307

Definition 21–23

Mitigation 22, 40, 55, 57–8, 88, 99, 103, 108–11, 127, 129, 132, 135–6, 140–1, 144, 152, 157, 163, 173–4, 176–8, 180–1, 183, 186, 188–91, 196, 198–9, 201–3, 205, 208–12, 214–19, 223–4, 228–9, 231–4, 236–9, 241, 243, 245–7, 253–4, 257–9, 261, 263–5, 268, 281, 284–5, 287, 294, 298

Common but differentiated responsibilities 23, 40–1, 58, 60, 62, 76, 87, 102–3, 115, 144, 148, 159, 161–2, 171, 173, 176–7, 180, 182, 229, 232–3, 293, 302

← 366 | 367 →Common Foreign and Security Policy 165, 255

Conference of the parties

Bali 25, 134, 141–5, 171–176, 260, 265, 267–8, 289

Berlin 24, 64, 77–80, 133, 232, 289

Cancun 17, 20, 25, 251–274, 306

Copenhagen 18–19, 25, 43, ­151–243

Delhi 129–132, 191, 200

Doha 20, 25, 251, 256, 263–5, 265–74

Durban 20, 25, 251, 254, 256–7, 261–74

Geneva 48, 50, 54–5, 65–7, 80–1, 83, 103

Kyoto 67–112

Marrakech 24, 113–150, 279

Milan 130–2

Montreal 48, 96, 138, 140, 142, 172–3

Nairobi 139–41

Poznan 180–6, 226–7, 231, 286

The Hague 49, 116–26, 147

Copenhagen Accord 19, 25, 43, 222–4, 251–60, 266–70, 279, 291

Council of the EU

Environment 51, 65, 75–6, 84, 99, 128, 165–70, 178–9, 182, 187, 200, 204, 226, 248, 255–7, 262, 307

Finance 187

Presidency, see Presidency of the Council of the EU

D

Delhi Declaration 129–30

Doha Gateway 20, 251, 265–8

Durban Package 20, 251, 262, 265–8, 271–2

E

Earth Summit 23, 47, 50, 57, 86, 117

Emissions Trading 18, 82, 84, 90, 92, 95, 97–8, 101, 106, 108, 113, 128, 177–9, 185–6, 228, 230, 237, 242, 253, 264, 270, 285–7, 298, 306, 309

European Commission 34, 51, 88, 90, 165, 170, 182–3, 186–7, 196, 213, 254, 259, 264, 309

European Council 34, 51, 99, 137, 141–2, 147, 165, 167–70, 185, 187, 200–1, 216, 221, 227, 231, 256

European Emissions Trading System, see Emissions Trading

European External Action Service 255–6, 307

European Union

Actor capacity, see Actor capacity

Ad Hoc Working Group on Climate Change 75, 84, 128

Climate and Energy Package 18, 170, 177–9, 182–3, 185, 227, 245

External representation 35, 74, 248, 254–5, 307

Leadership 18, 20, 24, 28, 86, 124, 157, 169, 175, 181, 227, 229–30, 247, 273–4, 304

Legal status 35, 54, 191

Troika, see Troika

F

Flexible mechanism 23–4, 29, 82, 84, 89, 92, 95, 97, 103–9, 112–9, 122–5, 128, 155, 158, 178, 180, 186, 189, 193, 206–7, 225, 280

← 367 | 368 →see Clean Development Mechanism

see Emissions Trading

see Joint Implementation

Foreign policy

Analysis 34–37

Definition 17–18, 34

European Union 17–25, 34–37

Implementation 29

Instruments 34–37

France 54–6, 60, 63, 75, 78, 86, 90, 120, 164, 167, 190, 208, 212–3, 216, 226, 240, 252, 256, 259, 308

G

G-7 49, 52

G-7+1 86, 98

G-8 86, 134–5, 142, 144, 146–7, 149, 152–3, 157, 168, 180, 194–5, 202, 216–7, 220, 225–6, 231, 234–5, 238, 276

Gleneagles 134, 145, 177, 226

Heiligendamm 142, 144, 180–1, 195, 226, 235

L’Aquila 231, 238

G-8+5 135, 147, 177, 181, 194–5, 225, 276

G-20 152–3, 168, 182, 190, 197–8, 200, 225, 245, 256, 259, 276, 307

Geneva Ministerial Declaration 50

Germany 51, 55–6, 63, 65–6, 73, 75, 81, 84, 86, 90, 120, 142, 164–5, 167–8, 179, 185, 190, 200, 208, 210, 213, 226, 252, 256, 259

Goodness of fit 283–6, 290, 292–3, 303, 306

Green Diplomacy Network 136–7

Greenhouse effect 22, 51–2, 68

Greenhouse gas 22, 25, 41, 54–8, 65–72, 80–1, 83, 85, 88–9, 91, 96, 99–100, 104, 107, 114, 118, 127, 129, 134–5, 143–4, 151–5, 159–62, 164, 169, 177, 189–90, 192, 196, 200, 208, 223, 229, 243–5, 264

Greenland Dialogue 194–5

Group of 77 and China 44, 53, 55, 57, 61, 68, 71–2, 78–9, 82–3, 85, 89–90, 92, 95, 102–5, 108–12, 115, 117, 119–23, 127, 129–33, 135, 138, 140, 144, 149, 159, 161, 163, 171–6, 178, 180–1, 186, 188–9, 198–9, 205–7, 209–14, 223, 229, 234, 240, 243, 253–4, 258, 260, 271, 281, 284, 294–7

H

High Representative for Foreign and Security Policy 34, 165, 255, 307

I

India 44, 55, 71, 79, 90, 92, 117–8, 120, 129–31, 134–6, 139, 145–7, 149, 152, 155–63, 168, 172, 178, 180, 182, 184, 187, 189–91, 200, 204, 211, 213, 222, 226, 232–7, 243, 246, 254, 258, 260–2, 267, 271, 280, 295, 304, 308

Influence

Analysis 27–33

Constitutive dimensions 30–31

Definition 30

Degrees 33

Typology 33

Constitutive dimensions 29

Definition 29

Typology 33

← 368 | 369 →Influence attempt

Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee 23, 50, 52, 54–66, 72, 76–9

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 21–2, 48, 50, 52, 68, 71–2, 78, 81–2, 104, 110, 135, 144–6, 153, 165, 172–4, 170, 188–9, 191, 193–4, 224, 229, 233–5, 238, 245, 257, 267, 269, 280–1, 298–9

Assessment Report, see Assessment Report

International relations theory 28, 30, 289, 299

Italy 75, 86, 90, 164, 168, 185, 190, 194, 216

J

Japan 24, 44, 50, 53, 56, 66, 68, 70, 81, 84–5, 88, 90–4, 96, 98, 104–8, 110–1, 114, 117–8, 120–2, 124–7, 130, 134, 136, 138–9, 142, 145, 156–7, 160, 168, 171, 173, 177, 179, 180, 183, 189–90, 192, 194, 196, 199, 202–6, 212–3, 222, 228–9, 234, 237–8, 246, 252–3, 257, 260–1, 268, 272, 280–1, 283

Joint Implementation 59, 84, 97, 113, 138

JUS(S)CA(N)NZ 68, 71–2, 78–80, 82, 84–6, 88, 90–1, 100, 102, 104–5, 107–8, 114–5

see also Umbrella Group

K

Kyoto Protocol 17, 19, 24, 43, 65, 67–8, 70, 74, 76–7, 95–7, 101–9, 113–8, 120, 122–34, 138, 142, 147–9, 124, 156–9, 161–2, 165, 167–72, 177, 179–81, 183–85, 190, 192–3, 196, 198, 200–2, 206, 208–10, 231–2, 234, 238–9, 242–3, 246, 249, 253, 257–8, 260, 262–4, 268–70, 272, 279, 282, 291, 294–6, 304

L

Land-use, Land-use change and forestry 118, 122, 130, 132, 143, 178–80, 189, 193, 206, 209, 225

Least Developed Countries 71–2, 121, 163, 191, 216

Lisbon Treaty 34, 166, 255–6, 269, 273, 307

M

Maastricht Treaty 17, 282

Major Economies Forum 190, 194–7, 200, 213, 225–6, 231, 234–5, 238, 240, 259, 261, 264, 279, 308

Major Economies Meeting 145, 153, 155, 168, 177, 179, 181

Marrakech Accords 24, 113–132, 138, 148, 279

Meeting of the parties 43, 97, 113–4, 117, 127, 130, 132, 135, 138–46, 151, 171–2, 175, 182–3, 185, 194, 202, 205–7, 209–13, 221–2, 225, 231–2, 238–9, 245, 251, 254, ­258–60, 262–8, 270–2

Mitigation, see Climate change

MRV 178, 184, 191–2, 197, 209, 215–6, 218–20, 224, 238, 259

N

Nationally appropriate mitigation actions 55, 174, 176, 181, 184, 189, 191–2, 200, 202–3, 207–9, 215, 218, 223–4, 232–3, 242, 266

← 369 | 370 →New Zealand 44, 53, 66, 68, 71, 78, 85, 87, 90, 92, 96, 98, 102, 114, 127, 254, 259, 268

Non-governmental organization 43, 89, 102–3

North American Free Trade Agreement 91

Norway 44, 68, 71, 78, 114, 177, 213, 254, 259, 268

O

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development 52–3, 55–6, 58, 61–3, 65–6, 83, 98, 162, 178, 281

Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries 44, 53, 72, 78–82, 89, 102–3, 131, 159, 163, 205, 213

P

Petersberg Dialogue 259, 261, 264

Poland 164, 169, 185, 187, 216, 256–7, 264–5, 273

Power 21, 27, 39–40, 52, 64, 113, 125–7, 149, 228, 247, 275, 281–4, 290–7, 303, 305

Presidency of the Council of the EU 34, 54, 60, 65, 75–8, 80–1, 84, 93, 98–9, 116, 120, 125, 128, 167–8, 179–80, 185, 187, 196, 198, 202, 205–6, 210–11, 213, 223, 226, 229, 236, 238, 247, 259, 273, 307

Belgian 256

British, see also United Kingdom 75, 226

Cypriot 256

Czech 167, 187

Dutch 54, 75, 84

French, see also France 75–6, 78, 125, 167, 180, 185

German, see also Germany 75–6, 142, 167, 226

Irish 84, 128

Italian, see also Italy 81, 84

Polish, see also Poland 167, 179

Portuguese 54, 167

Slovenian 167, 179

Spanish 80, 167

Swedish 120, 167, 198, 229

Principles 40–1, 57–8, 63, 117, 159, 197, 265, 299–300

see also Common but differentiated responsibilities

Equity 40, 58, 71–2, 79, 111, 161, 246

Precautionary 40, 53, 58, 73, 111, 165, 245, 280

Process-tracing 42–46

Q

Quantified Emission Limitation and Reduction Objectives 87, 91, 93, 176, 185, 241, 258, 260, 266–9, 283, 294

R

Regime

Analysis 38–42

Definition 40

Theory 38–9

Regional Economic Integration Organisation 65, 72, 74, 106, 166

Russia 24, 44, 52–3, 56, 68, 72, 78, 82–4, 90–1, 96, 98, 103, 114, ← 370 | 371 →120–2, 124, 126–7, 130–2, 143, 147, 152, 156, 158, 172–3, 190, 202, 204, 206, 213, 229, 234–5, 237, 253, 260–1, 265, 268, 272, 278, 280, 285–7

S

Saudi Arabia 72, 78, 83, 90, 143, 152, 163, 213

Single European Act 51, 133

South Africa 25, 79, 134, 143, 152, 159, 162–3, 175, 180, 183, 188, 193, 213, 226, 254, 262, 267, 270, 304

Sustainable development 58, 77, 80, 127, 129, 130–1, 134, 174, 177, 263

T

Troika 75, 93, 98, 106, 116, 119–20, 136, 149, 167–8, 177, 182, 187, 190, 196, 212–3, 220–1, 225, 278, 282, 294, 307

U

Ukraine 44, 72, 114, 265, 268

Umbrella Group 44, 114, 119–27, 130–31, 135, 144, 147–9, 154, 158, 172, 174–6, 180–1, 186, 195, 198, 229, 232–3, 244–5, 252, 258, 265, 285–6

United Nations, see also United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 17, 50, 52, 128, 139, 145, 151, 197, 204, 304

United Nations Conference on the Human Environment 48, 162

United Nations General Assembly 23, 49–50, 54, 86, 142, 177

United Nations Security Council 141

United Nations Framework Con-vention on Climate Change 17, 19, 23–4, 40–1, 43, 47, 52–3, 56–9, 62–6, 68–74, 76–80, 83, 86, 90–5, 97–103, 106, 110, 114, 118–9, 121, 123, 126, 129, 134, 138–9, 141, 143, 166, 171, 176, 180–1, 183, 192, 198–9, 202, 207, 223, 236, 243, 257, 270, 279, 282, 295–6, 301

Secretariat 59, 83, 86, 98–9, 121, 143, 181, 193–4, 223, 257

United Kingdom 51, 54–65, 73, 76, 84, 86, 90, 94, 96, 98, 106, 111, 126, 134–5, 139, 164–70, 187, 190, 200, 209–13, 216, 221–2, 226, 240, 260

United States 24, 44, 47–8, 52–3, 55–64, 66, 68–71, 78–96, 98, 100–27, 129, 131, 133–9, 144–9, 151–62, 168, 171, 173–7, 179, 187–94, 196–206, 209, 212–6, 218, 220–4, 226–8, 231–47, 253, 257, 260–2, 264–5, 271, 277–81, 283–4, 294–6, 304, 309

House of Representatives 69, 190, 194, 214

Senate 69, 88, 109–10, 115, 117, 154–55, 193, 205, 253

W

Working Party on International Environmental Issues-Climate Change 134, 137, 166–68, 261, 288, 307

World Climate Conference 48, 50

World Event Interaction Coding Scheme 30, 99, 228← 371 | 372 →