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Basque Nationhood

Towards a Democratic Scenario


Edited By Pedro Ibarra Güell and Åshild Kolås

Debates about Basque self-determination were curtailed for decades by political violence, involving both the actions of ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) and the counter-terrorism activities of Spain and France. In 2011, ETA announced a permanent cessation of operations. Since then, stakeholders have become increasingly aware of the need to rethink Basque nationhood and democratic representation in light of the changing nature of nationhood and citizenship within the European Union. These issues are also topical in the French Basque country, which has witnessed a re-emergence of Basque identity politics in recent years.
This book describes the contemporary re-imagining of Basque nationhood in both Spain and France. Taking a fresh look at the history of Basque nationalist movements, it explores the new debates that have emerged since the demise of non-state militancy. Alongside analysis of local transformations, it also describes the impact of global changes on ideas about Basque self-determination.


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ACBC Autonomous Community of the Basque Country (Comunidad Autónoma del País Vasco) ANV Acción Nacionalista Vasca (Basque Nationalist Action) AP Alianza Popular (People’s Alliance) CCN Chartered Community of Navarre (Comunidad Foral de Navarra) EH Bildu Euskal Herria Bildu (Basque Country Reunite) EHE Euskal Herrian Euskaraz (In Euskara in the Basque Country) EHU Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea (University of the Basque Country) EKB Euskal Kulturaren Batzarreak (Committee of Basque Culture) ETA Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (Basque Homeland and Liberty) ETA-M ETA militar (ETA military) ETA-PM ETA político-militar (ETA political-military) GAL Grupos Antiterroristas de Liberación (Anti-Terrorist Liberation Groups) GED Gure Esku Dago (It’s in Our Hands) x Acronyms HB Herri Batasuna (People’s Union) IU Izquierda Unida (United Left) LAB Langile Abertzaleen Btazordeak (Patriotic Workers’ Committee) MLNV Movimiento de Liberación Nacional Vasco (Basque National Liberation Movement) PCE Partido Comunista de España (Communist Party of Spain) PNV Partido Nacionalista Vasco (Basque Nationalist Party) PP Partido Popular (People’s Party) PSE-EE Partido Socialista de Euskadi-Euskadiko Ezkerra (Basque Socialist Party-Basque Left) PSOE Partido Socialista Obrero Español (Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party) UCD Unión de Centro Democrático (Union of the Democratic Centre) UPV Universidad del País Vasco (University of the Basque Country) UPyD Unión, Progreso y Democracia (Union, Progress and Democracy)

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