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Arabische Sprache im Kontext

Festschrift zu Ehren von Eckehard Schulz

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Edited By Beate Backe, Thoralf Hanstein and Kristina Stock

Den Eintritt in den «Ruhestand» von Eckehard Schulz, Professor für Arabische Sprach- und Übersetzungswissenschaft an der Universität Leipzig von 1993 bis 2018, haben nationale und internationale Fachkolleg*innen und Schüler*innen zum Anlass genommen, um in ihren Beiträgen aufzuzeigen, wie relevant die arabische Sprache und vor allem deren angemessene Beherrschung mittlerweile in den verschiedenen Bereichen von Wissenschaft und Praxis geworden sind. Unter Beachtung der aktuellen politischen und sozialen Gegebenheiten erstreckt sich der Kontext von den Teilgebieten der Linguistik – wie z.B. der Übersetzungswissenschaft, Grammatik und Dialektologie – über Politik- und Rechtswissenschaft sowie Didaktik und Ethnologie bis hin zu den Medienwissenschaften und zur Informatik.

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States, terrorists and bandits: ḥirāba in jihadist ideology (Gunnar Weimann)

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States, terrorists and bandits: ḥirāba in jihadist ideology1

Gunnar J. Weimann, Leiden

It is a common saying that one person’s terrorist is another person’s freedom fighter. In many if not most cases, groups that are labelled as terrorists by a government also accuse that government of being the real terrorists. In the confrontation between governments of Muslim majority countries and jihadist groups that oppose them, such polemics draw on Islamic doctrines, including ḥirāba, one of the ḥadd offences in Islamic law,2 which in legal terms is equalled to armed robbery or banditry. This chapter looks into mutual accusations of ḥirāba, focussing in particular on how jihadists use this ḥadd crime to discredit their enemies.

For several reasons, unlike in Western contexts, the charge of “terrorism” is employed in these intra-Muslim polemics to a far lesser extent. The word terrorism is usually rendered in Arabic by irhāb, with the derived form irhābī used for “terrorist” as both an adjective and a noun. The word is used not only in the media and political discourses but is also the equivalent for “terrorism” in UN resolutions, including the one condemning the 11 September 2001 attacks in the USA.3 While it is beyond the scope of this chapter to investigate the origins of the use of the word, it seems likely that irhāb, which literally means “to instil fear”,4 is a calque of the Western concept of terrorism. This interpretation...

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