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Künstler mit Assistenzbedarf

Eine Interaktionsstudie

Frederik Poppe

Künstler mit Assistenzbedarf erreichen mittlerweile durch Ausstellungen und Publikationen einen gewissen Bekanntheitsgrad und sind auch auf dem Kunstmarkt präsent. Assistenten schaffen dabei die notwendigen Rahmenbedingungen für kreative Prozesse und leisten einen erheblichen Beitrag zur Öffentlichkeitsarbeit. In dieser Studie wurden Interaktionen zwischen bildenden Künstlern mit Assistenzbedarf und ihren unterstützenden Bezugspersonen untersucht. Mit Hilfe von videografischen Erhebungsinstrumenten und narrativen Interviews konnte im Stil der Grounded Theory ein umfassendes Bild der Aufgabenbandbreite und des komplexen Rollenverständnisses von Assistenten erstellt werden. Es werden konzeptuelle Ideen für eine Professionalisierung der Ausbildung von Assistenten und Künstlern entwickelt, um den in der Zusammenarbeit auftretenden Interessenskonflikten begegnen zu können.

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Abstract

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Art and creativity of people with learning disabilities have only been dis- cussed since the 1970s. At the margins of this discussion, a recurring debate has questioned the necessity of assistance. Scientific studies regarding the cooperation of artists with cognitive disabilities and assistants are, however, still outstanding. A similar situation is found regarding the development of guidelines or a pattern of assistance in the creative process. In the present work, interac- tions between fine artists and their supporters have been analyzed. The main focus was the study of basic approaches of assistants and their associated role identity. The influence of these supporters to artistic production proces- ses and the art-historical debate by publishing art works as well as on the art market were equally considered. The study was accomplished in the style of Grounded Theory. Assistants working in professional studios were assessed using narrative interviews, while interactions between artists in need of assistance and assistants were analyzed videographically in daily work. Assistants see their role primarily in the creation of framework requirement and an inspiring work environment to enable creative work for artists in need of assistance. Interference with the content level of artistic production process contradicts the self-formulated attitude of assistants. Manipulative interactions were observed in the empirical study by videographical methods. This is partly due to the great variety of tasks of assistants working with artists in need of assistance: they support primarily the process of artistic production, but are also required to train self-taught artists artistically and...

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