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Why is Norway Outside the European Union?

Norwegian National Identity and the Question of European Integration

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Gamze Tanil

This book introduces identity politics into the analysis of international relations. Through the usage of identification approaches, combined with an extensive presentation of the specific features of Norwegian nation-building, it offers a lucid account of how Norway’s history and culture shape the prism through which many Norwegians view the merits of their country’s relations with the emerging European Union.

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Foreword .......................................................................................................... 5 Preface ............................................................................................................. 9 Acknowledgements .......................................................................................... 11 Chapter 1: Introduction .................................................................................... 13 1 Research Area ............................................................................................. 13 2 Research Subject ......................................................................................... 14 3 Theoretical Background .............................................................................. 18 4 Methodology ................................................................................................ 20 5 Research Structure ...................................................................................... 21 6 Relevance of this Research ......................................................................... 22 Chapter 2: Theoretical Background ................................................................ 23 1 Introduction ................................................................................................. 23 2 Theories of Nationalism .............................................................................. 23 3 National Identity Dynamic and Foreign Policy .......................................... 28 4 Theoretical Hypotheses ............................................................................... 32 Chapter 3: The Construction of the Norwegian National Identity .................. 35 1 Introduction ................................................................................................. 35 2 Construction of the Norwegian National Identity ...................................... 37 2.1. History ................................................................................................. 37 2.2. Foundational Myth .............................................................................. 43 2.3. Territorial Bond or Homeland ............................................................. 46 2.4. Idea of Norwegian People ................................................................... 48 2.5. Invented Traditions .............................................................................. 50 National Political Institution ............................................................... 50 National Language .............................................................................. 52 National Flag ....................................................................................... 54 National Anthem ................................................................................. 55 National Day ........................................................................................ 57 National Hero ...................................................................................... 58 83 Role of the National Art and Literature in the Construction and Institutionalization of the Norwegian National Identity ............................. 59 3.1. Art ........................................................................................................ 60 3.2. Music ................................................................................................... 63 3.3. Literature ............................................................................................. 65 4 Conclusive Remarks .................................................................................... 66 Chapter 4: The Functioning of the Norwegian National Identity Dynamic ... 71 1 Introduction ................................................................................................. 71 2 1961-62: The First Application to EEC and the First Debate ..................... 72 3 1967: The Second Attempt to Get Norway into the EC .............................. 75 4 1972 Debate on EC Membership ................................................................ 76 4.1. Application Discussions ...................................................................... 76 4.2. Membership Negotiations ................................................................... 76 4.3. Referendum Campaigns ...................................................................... 77 Actors .................................................................................................. 78 Arguments ........................................................................................... 78 Result ................................................................................................... 82 4.4. Conclusive Remarks ............................................................................ 82 5 1992 EEA Agreement and the Period of Adaptation .................................. 84 6 1994 Debate on EU Membership ................................................................ 85 6.1. Application Discussions ...................................................................... 85 6.2. Membership Negotiations ................................................................... 86 6.3. Referendum Campaigns...

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