Show Less

Tsunami in Kerala, India: Long-Term Psychological Distress, Sense of Coherence, Social Support, and Coping in a Non-Industrialized Setting


Sophia von Lieres

This study assesses the long-term psychological consequences after the 2004 Asian tsunami in Kerala, India. Participants are the inhabitants of Kerala’s coastal regions. The results indicated that the participants who were affected by the tsunami showed significantly greater psychological distress and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than a control group. In addition, it could be shown that protective factors, such as perceived social support, certain coping strategies, and a sense of coherence, could decrease the level of symptoms. Perceived social support, in particular, decreased symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and a strong sense of coherence mitigated psychological distress. Avoidance coping was found to be more effective in decreasing levels of traumatic stress in this non-industrialized, collectivistic cultural setting.


Show Summary Details
Restricted access



I am very grateful for all that my supervisor Prof. Evelin Witruk has done for me. Her constant support, expert guidance, continuous encouragement, and very useful advice enabled me to pursue this PhD thesis work. I also would like to thank Dr. Frank Piontek for his invaluable assistance with my path analysis model. Research for this dissertation would not have been possible without the generous financial support of the German Academic Exchange Service (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst, DAAD). Moreover, I would also like to thank all my family and friends from all over the world for their moral support throughout my dissertation project. A special thanks to my father who helped me with emotional, material, and prac- tical support. Moreover, I would like to thank all of the participants from the Alappad District for their time and effort. I owe special thanks also to the translators, without their help the study would not have been possible. Finally, without Amma’s grace and blessings, this dissertation project would not have been possible. It is She who gave me courage and strength. I humbly lay down this thesis paper at Amma’s feet.

You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.

This site requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals.

Do you have any questions? Contact us.

Or login to access all content.