Governing Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Innovation in South Korea
4 Evolution and reform of Korea’s national system of innovation
This chapter provides an overview on the evolution of Korea's innovation system. It summarises the key aspects o f three generations o f innovation policy and the practices that shaped the governmental organisation o f the public S&T system, as well as the framing o f policies to enhance the generic S&T capabilities o f the evolving system o f industrial innovation. The chapter is divided in two parts. The first part outlines the different phases o f the development o f Korea's innovation system from a historical perspective. It discusses the role o f early S&T policy inducements to build the core elements and relationships o f the system as well as factors that have contributed to policy learning and partial systemic reconfigurations during the catch-up period. A key focus o f the first part o f the chapter is the shift in policy direction before and after the Asian crisis in 1997. A new framing o f policy interventions as part o f the post-crisis restructuring as well as the elements o f the reform o f government-business relations, including the reform o f corporate governance, are central aspects of the first part. The second part focuses on the restructuring o f the STI policy governance and the elements that characterise the shift towards a horizontal mode o f innovation policy governance. Several reform initiatives o f the recent governments are contrasted and the remaining challenges for accomplishing a coherent mode o f third generation...
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