The Case of Social Exclusion in the Context of the Crisis and the Restructuring of the Welfare State
Though the concept of social exclusion was first coined in 1974, as is often pointed out in the relevant literature, the concept became particularly widespread and popular in the 1990s. The emergence of the concept coincided with a widespread crisis of capitalism, of Keynesian economic policies, and of the welfare state. Though welfare capitalism was the product of a process of restructuring after the structural crisis of capitalism in 1929, another crisis of capitalism that showed its first signs at the end of 1960, in 1971, and in 1973 materialised itself in the first and second oil crises. This provoked a growing critique of the welfare state itself which has become its main focus. In this context, the various social protection mechanisms provided by the state and social obligations prevented individuals from entering the labour market to obtain basic means of subsistence, and thus, as it was often suggested, this process led people to idleness and irresponsibility. In addition, the state’s public expenditures expanding on this axis and the rising budget deficits have reached such dimensions as to bankrupt the state. It is stated that the resources are supposed to serve the purpose of accelerating accumulation. However, the fact that thess resources are being channeled to non-productive fields, especially in countries where the welfare state is still a valid policy, has weakened economic growth. What is championed in this direction is reducing the state’s social obligations and ensuring individuals to enter the labour market, and...
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