This book represents the volume of the International Musicological Conference «Musical Romania and Neighbouring Cultures. Traditions, Influences, Identities», which took place in Iaşi (Romania) and was organised by the George Enescu University of Arts Iaşi in collaboration with the International Musicological Society. The volume includes 35 papers of 38 authors who represent academic centres in Croatia, Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Romania. The diverse topics include ancient Romanian, Balkan or East-European music, music iconography, Byzantine and folkloristic traditions, as well as modern and contemporary music. The articles propose theoretical and methodological documentation on the interactions between liturgical, folkloric and academic works within this multicultural space.