New polities emerged during the processes of decolonization. The break with the colonial past was not only political, but also more general. While conventional wisdom defines education as a field of action reproducing society in time, decolo-nization placed broader and more radical demands on the field: to produce a new society. For this purpose, new forms of education and schooling were required, although the importance of inherited institutions and practices in education were still significant. This collection of chapters offers scholarly insights into this problem by covering different processes of decolonization and the challenges of education in the last two hundred years.