The book constitutes an innovative study devoted to modernisation processes among Lviv Jews during the period of Galicia’s autonomy (1867-1914). It takes into account Vienna’s influence on various areas of life. The author reconstructs a triad which is quite surprising: Vienna was at its top, Lviv below, and the Galician province figured at the bottom. Key processes and events are presented, including the success and failure of assimilation, the shaping of modern Jewish elites, political and religious conflicts, the birth of Zionism, economic and political migration, and the influence of Jews on the creation of modern Lviv. The book draws on numerous and often untapped sources from Polish, Ukrainian and Austrian archives.