Neither instruments nor methodologies are available to measure the development of CoI over long periods of time. Therefore, it is impossible to state whether CoI increase or decrease. The Member States of the EU have no statistics and figures about the development of Conflicts of Interest (CoI). However, ever new scandals, growing media attention and changing concepts of governance create ever new ethical challenges and conflicts of interest. As such, detecting, managing and measuring CoI policies involve some of the greatest challenges and difficulties in legal, political, organizational, behavioural and administrative sciences. This international and empirical research examines the causes of conflicts of interest and discusses concepts, innovative instruments and new ideas how to enhance the effectiveness of policies.