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Christopher Browning

Building on constructivist approaches to international relations this book develops a narrative theory of identity, action and foreign policy, which is then applied to account for the evolution of Finnish foreign policy. The book adopts an innovative approach by showing how foreign policy orientations need to be seen as grounded in overlapping and competing sets of identity narratives that reappear in different forms through history. By emphasising the dynamism implicit within identity narratives the book not only challenges traditional rationalist materialist approaches to foreign policy analysis, but also the current tendency to depict the story of Finnish foreign policy, identity and history as one of a gradual move towards a Western location. Rather the book emphasises elements of multiplicity and contingency, whilst re-establishing foreign policy as a highly political process concerned with power and the right to define reality and national subjectivity.
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Still Not Equal

Expanding Educational Opportunity in Society

Christopher M. Brown II

Still Not Equal: Expanding Educational Opportunity in Society addresses the successes and failures of Brown v. Board of Education and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as well as the continuing challenge of expanding educational opportunity in the United States and across the Black diaspora. The educational, political, and social influence resulting from Brown, the Civil Rights Act, and their progeny have shaped the dynamics of the collective educational and social experiences of people of color. Notwithstanding, the obstacles, barriers, and enablers of educational, occupational, and economic status outcomes impact the formation and interpretation of public policy, specifically, and public perception, generally, about racialized notions of schooling and learning. The pursuit of educational access, attendance, and attainment is intertwined with the implications of academic research and public policy to improve local practices in school settings. Inasmuch as a diverse research agenda, priorities, and activities become situated to critically address status and attainment outcomes in education from preschool through adulthood for African Americans in the United States and abroad, the resulting complexities in education and other settings will continue to behave in ways that cross racial lines.
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Edited by Christopher Brown and Pam Hirsch

The swimming pool frequently appears in film not merely as a setting but as a dynamic site where social, political, cultural and aesthetic forces converge. What is it about this space that has so fascinated filmmakers and what kinds of cinematic investigations does it encourage? This collection features essays by an eclectic, international range of film researchers. Amongst the works analysed are classics such as The Cameraman (1928), The Philadelphia Story (1940) and La Piscine (1969); cult hits such as The Swimmer (1968) and Deep End (1970); and more recent representations of the pool in Water Lilies (2007), Sea Point Days (2009) and Ausente (2011). The pool is considered as a realm where artifice meets nature, where public meets private, where sexualities morph and blend; and as a space that reconfigures the relationship between architecture and narrative, in which themes of pollution, spectacle and reflexivity find unique expression. Approaching the swimming pool from a wide range of methodological perspectives, the essays in this collection stake a claim for the enduring significance of this exciting cinematic space.
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Edited by Christopher Brown II

The Education Management: Contexts, Constituents, and Communities (EM:c3) series includes the best scholarship on the varied dynamics of educational leadership, management, and ad-ministration across the educational continuum. In order to disseminate ideas and strate-gies useful for schools, colleges, and the education community, each book investigates critical topics missing from the extant literature and engages one or more theoretical perspectives. This series bridges the gaps between the traditional management research, practical approaches to academic administration, and the fluid nature of organizational realities. Additionally, the EM:c3 series endeavors to provide meaningful guidance on con-tinuing challenges to the effective and efficient management of educational contexts. Volumes in the series foreground important policy/praxis issues, developing professional trends, and the concerns of educational constituencies. The aim is to generate a corpus of scholarship that discusses the unique nature of education in the academic and social spaces of all school types (e.g., public, private, charter, parochial) and university types (e.g., public, private, historically black, tribal institutions, community colleges). The EM:c3 series offers thoughtful research presentations from leading experts in the fields of educational administration, higher education, organizational behavior, pub-lic administration, and related academic concentrations. Contributions represent re-search on the United States as well as other countries by comparison, address issues related to leadership at all levels of the educational system, and are written in a style ac-cessible to scholars, educational practitioners and policymakers throughout the world.
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Whiteness Is the New South Africa

Qualitative Research on Post-Apartheid Racism


Christopher B. Knaus and M. Christopher Brown II

In 1994, the world joined South Africa in celebration of the results of its first democratic election. The results, emblazoned on the world’s memory with President Nelson Mandela waving to a multiracial crowd, signified the end of apartheid and an emerging new era of hope. However, Mandela’s recent death has given birth to a more critical view of his «Rainbow Nation.» No matter how examined, education in South Africa remains steadfastly unequal, with many White children retaining the educational privileges inherent to apartheid. White children in South Africa overwhelmingly attend wealthy, fully resourced schools, while the vast majority of Black and Coloured children attend woefully underresourced schools.
Based upon three sets of studies in schools in and around Cape Town, Whiteness Is the New South Africa highlights drastic racial disparities, suggesting that educational apartheid continues unabated, potentially fostering future generations of impoverished Black and Coloured communities. This book suggests that South Africa remains committed to stifling the intellectual, emotional, and economic development of Black and Coloured youth, while simultaneously investing in White children.
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Black Sons to Mothers

Compliments, Critiques, and Challenges for Cultural Workers in Education

Christopher Brown II and James Earl Davis

Black Sons to Mothers is the critical site where African American male scholars explore the meanings and connections of the lives of black boys/men. This book offers literary, scholarly, and personal space to interrogate the seemingly elusive intersection of race and gender. Each chapter in the book is offered in one of two voices – one that speaks to teachers as cultural workers and one that represents individual transformation into the cultural space of mothering. This book’s intent is to both question black men’s constructions as sons (cultural offspring) and to engage in the project of representing mothering as cultural work and, specifically, the role of black men in this work.
Because the discourse on the role performance of black boys/men is steeped in the hegemonic rhetoric of traditional constructions of masculinity, that discourse fails to sensibly represent and elaborate on the diversity and complexity of their lives and relations, particularly in the academic enterprise. As such, Black Sons to Mothers attempts to recontextualize the discourse surrounding the cultural places where the identities of black boys/men are shaped and explores how the politics and constructions of manhood are informed and enforced in school settings.
In Black Sons to Mothers, the research subject of extrapolation is the oppressed and/or marginalized group. In opposition to deficit model inquiry, the research on white males is not being applied to black boys/men, but the research on black boys/men is being applied to all students. The black male student is at the center of a discourse that is not about a pathology, dysfunction, «at-riskness,» or «special education.» This book’s discourse is epigenetic in that it advances a more complex understanding of schooling and cultural work. This understanding is not solely about black boys/men, but about the cornerstone of cultural work – (un)learning.
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The Politics of Curricular Change

Race, Hegemony, and Power in Education

Christopher Brown II and Roderic R. Land

As different and significant peoples have joined its population, the United States has undergone various conceptions of education – its definition, purpose, content, and pedagogy, in primary and secondary schools as well as colleges and universities – and education for the twenty-first century will require curricular change. The quest for an inclusive curriculum – and the politics involved in that quest – is the continuing pursuit of a strategem that both acknowledges and utilizes the racially, ethnically, politically, economically, and linguistically diverse groups, along with the dominant majority, in order to support and maintain diversity, tolerance, and, ultimately, community.
The Politics of Curricular Change fills an important void in the existing literature on the relationship of multicultural curricular change to race, hegemony, and power as independent constructs. Given the scant amount of research on how these constructs serve as facilitators of curricular change, this book is timely in its reassessment of the requirements of multiculturalism, and will appeal to national- and state-level policy makers, higher education officials, administrators, faculty, researchers, and the national citizenry.
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School Matters

Why African American Students Need Multiple Forms of Capital

RoSusan Bartee and Christopher M. Brown II

There are four types of capital: economic, human, cultural, and social. The distribution of capital in home and school settings affects the types of educational outcomes and the quality of lifelong opportunities that individuals are able to enjoy. Resource availability and accessibility influence the success levels at which teaching and learning is experienced. Capital possession or acquisition impacts the ability to navigate the academic pipeline and to recognize the appropriate tools by which to do so. Minimal attempts have been taken to address different perspectives related to economic, human, cultural, and social capital. This book identifies the various tenets of capital as having shared similarities and/or differences, as well as reveals how the distribution of capital impacts educational settings. More specifically, this book reveals that given the increases in the parental education or the cultural capital of African Americans, no significant changes have occurred in the number of years that African-American children attend schools. This finding remains consistent in terms of the sort of cultural capital that they are able to gain. In sum, the research concludes that cultural capital does assume a significant role in the transfer of advantages that stem from middle- and upper-level socioeconomic backgrounds.
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The Children Hurricane Katrina Left Behind

Schooling Context, Professional Preparation, and Community Politics

Sharon P. Robinson and Christopher M. Brown II

Even before the 2005 «Disaster in the Delta» – as the devastation and loss wrought by the category-three hurricane known as Katrina came to be known – statistics emerged about the aggressive educational neglect of Louisiana’s African American schoolchildren. The harrowing data about the inadequacies being as racialized as the distribution of aid in the storm’s aftermath are chilling indeed. Yet, they have not dissuaded the more than thirty contributors to this volume from viewing Hurricane Katrina as an opportunity and a challenge to transform schools and society for the good of the entire United States. Divided into three sections («Education and School Contexts,» «Preparing Professionals for the Possible,» and «The Social Dynamics of Education Reform»), the seventeen chapters of The Children Hurricane Katrina Left Behind discuss what is essential for rebuilding urban schools in New Orleans as well as the nation, engaging the nuanced nexus of social events and educational policy (e.g., No Child Left Behind) as it relates to the preparation of professional educators and the future of America’s schools. As Linda Darling-Hammond notes in her Foreword, each chapter speaks «powerfully and poignantly to [centuries of educational neglect and failed social policies] and to what we can and must do about it.»
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Educating African American Males

Contexts for Consideration, Possibilities for Practice

Christopher Brown II, T. Elon Dancy II and James Earl Davis

This book’s predecessor, Black Sons to Mothers: Compliments, Critiques, and Challenges for Cultural Workers in Education (Peter Lang, 2000), sparked a decade of meaningful scholarship on the educational experiences and academic outcomes of African American males. Black Sons to Mothers proffered seminal contributions to the academic literature on the achievement gap, differential instruction, and minority schooling, and inspired further research – countless books, articles and reports written since about the educational challenges and successes of African American males directly reference the work.
Educating African American Males: Contexts for Consideration, Possibilities for Practice continues, extends, and advances the research and conversations introduced in Black Sons to Mothers. The chapters in this volume were commissioned by the Alphas in the Academy Committee (AAC) of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Incorporated. The AAC addresses issues incident to collegiate life, employment in higher education, and postsecondary performance among African American males. This book reflects the fraternity’s unshakable commitment to improving the contexts and outcomes of African American males in educational settings, and identifies important new territory for the next decade of scholarship on this critical topic.