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, Childhood and Society in the 1980s and 1990s (London: Falmer Press, 1996), pp. 94–113. Freire, P., The Politics of Education: Culture, Power and Liberation. Macedo, D., trans (Westport USA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1985). Freire, P., Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Bergman, M., trans (London: Penguin Books, 1996). Geertz, C., The Interpretation of Cultures (New York, NY: Basic Books, 1973). Giroux, H., and Shannon, P., eds, Education and Cultural Studies, Towards a Performa- tive Practice (New York, NY and London: Routledge, 1997). Giroux, H., and Shannon, P. ‘Cultural

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be translated to make it both understandable and meaningful in that place. It needs to forge links with comparable practices. By ‘meaningful’, I propose that it must develop its own theoretical markers, its own ‘local’ reference points, if it is to be accepted, used and take root. Boal in Burkina had to be translated and compared to Burkinabé practices for it to have resonance. Applied-theatre practice might have many of its origins in the Boal/Freire-inspired literacy campaigns in Peru, but it must build linguistic and practice links with radically dif

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- one de Beauvoir, Aristotle, Noam Chomsky, Angela Davis, Jacques Derrida, Paulo Freire, Erich Fromm, Mahatma Gandhi, Immanuel Kant, Martin Luther King Jr., Nelson Mandela, Karl Marx, Edgar Morin, Plato, and John Rawls have been shaped by efforts to define how individuals, groups, and societies ought to behave. Although diverse in many respects, all of these efforts have in common the argument that both people and societies should be governed by standards of conduct beyond simple deference to the possession of power and resources (Adorno, 1973; Foucault, 1980

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, 46–9; repr. Dits et Ecrits IV, Editions Gallimard, Bibliothèque des Sciences Humaines, 1994, 755–9. Foucault, Michel, ‘Of Other Spaces’, Diacritics 16/1 (Spring 1986), 22–7. Foucault, Michel, ‘The Subject and Power’, in Hubert L. Dreyfus and Paul Rabinow (eds), Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics, 2nd edn (Chi- cago: University of Chicago Press, 1982). Freire, Paulo, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, trans. by Myra Bergman Ramos (Continuum, 2000). Gillespie, Gordon, ‘Noises Off: Loyalists after the Agreement’ in Michael Cox, Adrian Guehlke and Fiona

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the specific needs and ideas of participants; thus creating a counter to conventional hierarchies of power, stifling contexts, closed questions and negative assumptions about young people. This book will examine how specific techniques evolved within the children’s homes set- tings before being further adapted and developed through commissioned and employed roles in related areas. 3 O’Toole, J. The Process of Drama, Negotiating Art and Meaning. London and New York, NY: Routledge, 1992. p. 30. 4 These terms are derived from the work of Freire, P. Pedagogy of

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and Getino experimented with documentary techniques to facilitate a trajectory for an anticolonial cin- ema that would fight for social change. This pedagogical approach to cinema is analogous to Freire’s pedagogy. Freire (1973) proposed a pedagogy of adult education for the illiterate peas- antry class who, in most cases, were born and submerged into a “culture of silence” imposed on them by the colonizers and the domestic ruling-class oppressors. Freire advocated a transformative learning that would raise the consciousness of the oppressed class and move them

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continue to perpetuate this treatment of others and reinforce these power relations. In an attempt to best bring what I had witnessed to light I began to consider what a theatre piece would look like if it considered this research as a whole project. I asked myself the questions: How can the design of a theatrical experience reflect core ideas of participation, processes of critical consciousness and reflexivity? How can theatre best tell the untold stories of those trapped at the ‘heart’ of the machine? Can we make people care? Muncie states: 2 Freire. The

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, but not directly didactic. Augusto Boal developed the idea of community theatre based on the principles of direct democracy and the desire to overcome different kinds of oppression, expressed in Paulo Freire’s Pedagogy of the Oppressed.76 In accordance with this notion of the potential of theatre as a democratic force within communities, the func- tion of theatre according to Gordon McDougall is ‘to re-form: through play, to recreate’: 75 Brooker, 189–90. 76 Augusto Boal, The Theatre of the Oppressed (Theatre Communications Group, 1985). Paulo Freire, Pedagogy

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work and started to explore the different potentials for it with us. These processes of exploration formed the foundations of a pedagogy that I continued to develop and build on for over a decade with other ‘looked-after’ groups. Camera Work: The ‘Tour’ and the Big Brother Diary Room Aaron and Leo asked us if they could make a film about Main-place in a mock estate-agent style to show some of their thoughts about the home. We 10 Freire. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. 1996. pp. 47–90. 11 This technique reflects Augusto Boal’s use of ‘photo-voice’ in Boal, A

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ideas and values in other areas could be reflected on, questioned and re-evaluated in relation to the young people’s experiences, enabling a climate in which critical thinking and Freire’s criti- cal consciousness (1970) might begin to develop. This group included young people with a wide range of additional needs, including those using Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS), Looked After Child (LAC) status, and several with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). A number of others made use of other LGBT specialist counselling and support services