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The Beginnings of Capitalism in Central Europe

Edited By Cyril Levitt

This book focuses on the beginnings of capitalism in Central Europe with emphasis on the German-speaking areas from the 14th to the 17th century. It also reviews and assesses the writings on the topic by the most important thinkers of the twentieth century. At the center of the presentation are the developments in mining, metallurgy, smelting, book publishing, clock making, ship building and advances in trade, commerce and finance. This book will be of interest to students of medieval and early modern European history, the so-called transition debate of feudalism to capitalism, social scientists and historians who are interested in the various transitions in human history, and philosophers who follow developments in the changing issues regarding freedom and bondage over the course of human development. Anthropologists who are familiar with Krader’s writings on the development of the Asiatic mode of production will be interested to see how Krader treats this transition from feudalism to capitalism by way of comparison and contrast.

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Index

Abel, W. 9394, 96

absolutism 17, 4849, 97, 106

dynastic 182

new 180

accumulation 49, 135, 214

increasing capital 43, 49, 135, 214

limited 113

primitive 17, 20

Agricola, G. 9, 11, 1314, 111, 114, 194200, 204, 206211, 215220, 222, 224, 239, 241243

Alberti, L.B. 8, 12, 159, 193

Amman, J. 8687, 118, 193, 242, 249

anthropology 169

Archimedes 13, 122, 126, 161, 167

arithmetic 4041, 122125, 128, 149, 166, 193, 241242, 251, 254, 264, 270

asceticism 28, 3132, 47, 95, 246

astronomers 150, 168, 269270

Augsburg 7, 9, 8183, 103104, 123, 137, 139140, 184, 194, 227, 229, 231, 245

Austria 4647, 84, 9798, 136, 178, 199, 227228, 241, 264

Baltic 15, 26, 96, 133134, 245

bankers 23, 26, 34, 50, 60, 138140, 184, 228, 238, 262263

banking 5, 16, 24, 223, 241, 271

Barcelona 1819, 21, 23, 262

Bavaria 46, 9798, 228

Bechtel, H. 81

Below, G. von.

on entrepreneurs 43, 266

on mercantile capitalism 127, 246

on modern capitalism 36

Bergknappen 54, 202, 242243

See also miners

Berlin 8283, 101, 182

Biringuccio, V. 9, 193, 196200, 203, 208, 210, 219220, 238, 241

Black Death 79, 85, 100

Black Forest 88, 98, 220, 225

blast furnace 216, 231, 236, 239

Bohemia 46, 53, 9798, 136, 138, 220, 228, 237238, 245, 264, 267

bookkeeping 4, 51, 123, 126128, 224

Botero, G. 10, 182, 193

←311 | 312→

bourgeois class 17, 45, 49, 55, 183184, 201

bourgeois society 4, 11, 30, 32, 40, 47, 58, 63, 129130, 268, 270

beginnings of modern 4, 11, 30, 32, 40, 47, 58, 63, 129130, 268, 270

capitalist system and modern 39, 180, 252

early epoch of modern 10, 14, 41, 88, 180

establishment of modern 266267

expansion of modern 46, 53

origin of modern 51

period of transition to modern 21, 50

portrayed modern 6

See also capitalist system

Brandenburg 88, 9091, 97, 100, 112, 121, 144, 183, 228

Braudel, F. 32

on early capitalism (15th to 18th century) 36, 37

Braunschweig 100, 112, 121, 183, 228

Brentano, L. 32, 38, 43, 127, 246, 266

on entrepreneurs 43

on merchants and trade 127

on modern capitalism 36

on peasants 246, 266

Brunner, O. 35, 116

Bücher, K. 99

Bundschuh movement 41, 88

Byzantine 248

Byzantium 8, 13, 276

calendar 118119, 163, 168, 269

Calvinism 2829, 32, 3435, 42, 48, 113, 144, 267

capital investments 128, 136, 198, 200, 204, 234, 237238, 262

capital 5, 20, 2223, 2628, 3032, 3638, 4142, 5355, 5758, 113114, 13537, 211212, 244245, 249254, 262263, 267268, 271273

accumulation of 19, 25, 43, 48, 121

commercial 24, 227228, 246

capitalism

developed culture 275276

history of 5, 33, 240, 246, 251, 254, 262263, 272

See also related terms; early capitalism

capitalist enterprises 28, 3031, 38, 107, 203

capitalist entrepreneurs 53, 90, 92, 111, 117, 174, 181, 230

capitalist forms 6, 132, 203, 213

capitalist system 45, 1920, 2230, 36, 38, 40, 42, 4748, 5255, 180181, 238, 245250, 252253, 262, 266268

capitalists 57, 18, 20, 2223, 25, 2730, 3334, 3638, 42, 69, 9293, 104105, 183, 244245, 253254

carpenters 86, 115, 158159, 171, 177, 189, 206, 214, 241242

cart 156, 175

pull mining 204

pushing mining 204

carters 206, 214216, 232

Catholic Church 113, 182

celestial mechanics 160, 168, 186

Central Europe

modern bourgeois society 313

See also labour processes

Central European 1011, 22, 88, 100, 106, 181, 203, 210, 226, 240, 263

charcoal 95, 196, 198, 216, 238239

chemistry 41, 64, 68, 101, 123, 168, 210, 250

church 111, 117, 119, 164, 166, 197, 200, 266, 268, 271

Cipolla, C.M. 32, 47, 81

civil peace 100, 116, 121, 180181

civil society 11, 23, 30, 3940, 44, 129130, 268

civilizations 4647

class struggles 1920, 43, 47, 101, 116, 178, 212, 244, 246, 253, 264, 266

clocks 1617, 164166, 171172, 188

cloth 6, 84, 86, 103, 107109, 113, 120, 122123, 126, 134137, 223224, 243245, 249

coal 24, 68, 196, 216, 229, 238

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coinage 1314, 25, 49, 52, 125, 190, 204205, 246, 261

coiners 34, 86, 205, 216

Cologne 83, 9798, 100101, 103104, 109, 111, 133, 165, 244

colonization 72, 91, 144, 254, 263, 266267

commerce 1819, 21, 23, 30, 32, 3637, 40, 43, 105106, 126, 128129, 245, 261262, 267268, 270271

commodities 2122, 24, 52, 6061, 86, 105, 108109, 115117, 119124, 128129, 135, 180181, 229230, 244, 249

commodity exchange 42, 86, 123, 126, 181

community 36, 54, 89, 92, 96, 100, 131, 200, 202

competition 101, 147, 164, 264

concrete tools 64, 66, 68, 156

conflicts 10, 22, 35, 48, 54, 69, 71, 92, 103, 164, 180181

consciousness 8, 61, 166, 171, 193, 217

Constantinople 6, 13, 1819, 21, 85, 248, 262

construction workers 114, 171172, 176177

construction 68, 113, 127, 131, 134135, 164, 166, 176, 178, 198199, 202, 249, 252

consumption 27, 43, 50, 60, 62, 64, 66, 75, 85, 95, 134

corvée service 87, 94, 107, 127, 142, 175, 179, 246

cottage industries 15, 47, 114, 117, 137, 229

craftsmen 24, 116117, 119120, 175, 207

credit institutes 2527, 34, 45, 47, 205, 214, 241, 245, 249, 252253, 262

credit instruments 2627

credit transactions 138, 140

Danzig 11, 8183, 98, 103, 133, 198, 244

Darmstadt 142, 185186, 188

Darwin, C. 74

da Vincy, Leonardo 9, 12, 160161, 165, 167, 193, 269

Descartes, R. 69, 160161, 167, 169

Die Coss (Ries) 125

Die Lehenschaft 179

See also feudal system

distribution 19, 21, 50, 53, 60, 62, 64, 66, 117, 119, 121, 214, 223, 249, 269270

Dobb, M. 2021, 36

Dürer, A. 89, 1112, 14, 158161, 193, 195, 217218, 241243, 269270, 300

early capitalism

agrarian economy 98

beginning 9, 33

class struggle 246

concept 1516, 33

dynastic absolutism 182

enterprises of high capitalism 252

European virgin forest 273

guild system 245

in Central Europe 184, 223

iron and tin 237238

Jew's position 35

labour process 6068

nuce, during 40

reciprocal relations 174

romantic spirits 140141

social structure 41

wage politics 173179

economic activity 34, 36, 48, 136, 138, 182

economic life 29, 47, 55, 75, 111112, 190, 216, 248, 252, 270, 275

economic system 6, 24, 26, 43, 49, 54, 86, 90, 128, 266, 271272

education 10, 13, 4041, 66, 119, 128, 224, 242, 251, 254, 270

Ehrenberg, R. 36, 43, 71, 127, 151152, 246

Einstein, A. 167

Elbe 5, 87, 91, 94, 177, 226, 248

Elkar, R.S. 116

employment 28, 52, 66, 110111, 114115, 219, 230, 232, 243, 253

Endres, R. 116117

Engels, F. 101, 246

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England 5, 7, 2930, 3537, 45, 55, 8182, 84, 103, 106, 132, 135, 137, 164165, 225226, 239, 247248, 263, 265, 267

guilds in 115

peasants 19, 57

serfdom 17

English East India Company 135

entrepreneurs 2324, 3738, 127128, 173174, 179181, 204205, 210, 212, 223225, 231234, 236, 238, 240, 246247, 250251

domestic 229

equality 4142, 54, 5759, 107, 111, 130, 174, 181182, 246247, 268, 272

Ercker, L. 70, 150, 193, 196, 198199, 210

Erzgebirge, S. 214, 225227, 234

Europäische Wirtschaftsgeschichte (Mols) 81

Europeans 8, 13, 6566, 122, 227, 263264, 266, 268

export 18, 21, 24, 98, 133, 227, 296

factories 18, 24, 64, 103104, 107, 116, 128, 139, 145, 169, 171

Faust (Goethe) 43, 55, 5859

Fechner, G.T. 159

Feldhaus, F.M. 47, 74, 184, 186, 224225, 262, 264

feudal system 1819, 21, 51, 54, 59, 68, 95, 179

feudal 20, 22, 39, 42, 50, 54, 95, 127, 177

feudalism 4, 1567, 140, 267

feudalism, modern era

bourgeois society 1725

Braudel 3237

capitalist system 3943

Faust’s on 4360

Janssen 3237

Kulischer 3237

Schumpeter on 3739

Sombart 3237

Strieder 3237

Weber on 2732

See also wage labourers

Fibonacci 9, 70, 123, 126, 149, 187, 193, 248, 269270

fishers 86, 114, 245

Flanders 7, 1819, 36, 84, 96, 137138

Florence 23, 36, 56, 71, 81, 123, 125, 139, 150, 195, 198

florins 123, 125, 138139, 177, 185, 191, 211, 235

food 67, 86, 114, 175, 177

foreign trade 2122, 84, 93, 98, 133, 182, 205, 241, 246, 267

forests 88, 92, 9697, 198, 200, 212, 228, 239

formal freedom 11, 54, 5759, 107, 110111, 130, 240241, 246

France 5, 7, 4445, 8082, 8485, 106, 108, 115, 117, 130, 132, 225226, 267

Franck, S. 175

Frankfurt 8183, 9899, 103104, 107, 109, 111113, 116, 118, 194195, 244245

Franz, G. 9698, 116

fraternities 54, 96, 102, 105, 110, 112, 115, 174, 180, 183

free trade 6, 16, 35, 110, 112, 130, 180

Freedom and equality in relation 174

freedom and equality 4142, 5759, 88, 107, 111, 174, 181, 247, 268, 272

See also wage labourers

freedom of movement 42, 272

Freiberg 102, 208, 213214

Fugger, J. 7, 9, 33, 55, 73, 138, 195

Fuggers 7, 9, 15, 29, 34, 13839, 150152, 184, 214, 243244, 262

furnaces 119, 156157, 198, 216, 221, 237, 239

Galilei 160161

Genoa 19, 21, 23, 123, 132, 139, 192, 248, 262, 271

Genossenschaften (cooperatives) 126, 134, 146, 200201, 212, 231, 236, 248

geometry 27, 124, 155184, 264

German Hansa 9, 53, 105, 132133, 249, 252

Germans 5, 1314, 16, 124125, 187, 195, 206208, 249, 253, 263268, 270

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Germany 45, 1314, 16, 4447, 55, 8081, 106108, 117, 177178, 181, 194195, 225226, 248, 263264, 266267

Gesellschaft 128, 130

Gierke, O. 29, 201203

Gilden 54, 72, 112, 121, 133134, 137, 145, 205, 212

glass 2526, 120, 166, 193195, 221, 297

Goethe 10, 5559, 106, 182

Goldstein, H. 160, 282

grain 6263, 87, 94, 96, 98, 102, 133, 166, 175, 178

Greeks 8, 85, 125, 194

Grimm 211212, 272

guild organizations 6, 18, 60, 68, 104, 106, 108, 111, 115116, 120121

Tetile Guilds in 1440 108

guild system 1920, 52, 60, 63, 103107, 109113, 115, 117, 120121, 133134, 181, 183184, 243244

Gutenberg, Johann 118

Hamburg 11, 14, 8183, 98, 100, 103, 133

hammer 47, 62, 68, 15556, 213, 224, 228, 232233, 237

mills 25, 174, 207, 22729, 232237, 239, 261

Hansa cities 23, 106, 134, 140, 226

Harz region 201, 210, 232, 241, 271

Hegel, G.W.F. 1011, 14, 29, 32, 6162, 7274, 180181, 183

Helmont, J.B. von 161162

Hesse, M.B. 46

hewers 179, 197, 2036, 211, 215, 21718, 233, 23536, 24142, 249

Hintze, O. 98

Hobbes, T. 32, 129130

Holy Roman Empire 9, 48, 81, 132, 203

horses 17, 94, 163, 206, 221, 234

human history 12, 4748, 50, 65, 67, 72, 90, 253

humanity 20, 5860, 62, 7273, 80, 181, 271

Hungary 46, 88, 98, 136, 138, 211, 241, 245, 264

Iberian Peninsula 8, 85, 226, 262263, 268

Inama-Sternegg 8081, 141, 145146, 174, 190

India 7, 16, 2628, 122, 135, 140, 144, 251, 262, 264265, 267

industrial revolution 6, 9, 16, 20, 26, 106, 110, 145, 151, 157, 246, 248249

industries 2526, 82, 84, 95, 99, 101, 203, 205, 223, 228, 263, 268

innovations 7, 6466, 222, 224

inventions 57, 47, 50, 6467, 7374, 103, 109, 132, 164, 171, 223224

iron 47, 61, 68, 175, 195196, 216, 221222, 225228, 230231, 233, 235239, 241, 259, 265, 267

industry 214, 216, 225, 227228, 231236, 245

ore 179, 216, 226227, 233, 238239

production of 225228, 233, 236, 238, 263

wire 119120, 226227, 229230

works 18, 47, 79, 227, 236

Islam 8, 21, 26, 68, 268

Italy 45, 7, 9, 11, 13, 1517, 19, 21, 33, 3538, 4445, 8082, 122, 194195, 240242

Janssen, J. 32, 54, 71, 96, 116

bourgeois life of 14th to the 16th century 96

on class struggle 116, 264

on Middle Age agriculture 37

on wagel abour 54

Jews 6, 28, 3435, 71, 125, 266267

Joachimsthal 102, 194195, 197198, 204, 208, 214, 216, 255, 264

Johannsen, O. 47, 225, 264

joint-stock company 6, 31, 53, 131133, 135, 140, 202, 212, 249, 252253

juridical 4041, 47, 129130, 140

Kant, I. 129130, 160, 277

Kapp, E. 66, 156

Kaser, M. 133

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Kellenbenz, H. 81

Kennedy, P. 46

Krader, L. 265

Kriegk, L.G. 101, 103, 117, 169

Kulischer, J.

concept of trade freedom 107

on entrepreneurs 43, 266

on peasants 246

on Sombart's views of capitalism 33, 35

labour Processes 100103

merchants and trade 127141

calculating skills 122127

peasants 86100

population 7986

late Middle Ages 56, 35, 72, 96, 99, 105107, 110, 117, 120, 163164, 173174, 200, 221, 223, 251252

Lazarus E. 194, 196, 224

leadership 54, 111, 135, 202203, 214

leather 87, 94, 98, 101, 114, 120, 126, 166, 221, 241, 299

Leibniz, G. W. 12, 46, 159, 161, 167, 169, 187, 202, 256

Leonardo, da Pisa 23, 123, 125, 165, 269

Luther, M. 6, 9, 2829, 35, 42, 48, 55, 127, 129, 170, 193

Lutheranism 29, 35, 98, 113

Mach, E. 160

Machiavelli, N. 56, 193

Marx, Karl

on capitalist system 2930, 55, 246

on Italian capitalist system 3638

on labour process 6162, 240

on modern bourgeois society 67, 5052, 250

on peasants 43, 4546, 127, 266

transformation of European society 1727

mathematicians 13, 124, 126, 150, 158, 160, 168, 185, 242, 264, 269

talented 270

mechanical clocks 7, 27, 157, 163166, 168169

annual expenditures 175

Europe in the 14th and 15th centuries 165

labour and society 180185

measurement and consciousness of time 169173

wages in construction 176

metal industry 5, 26, 49, 64, 137, 228, 232, 239, 250, 267, 270

metals 84, 86, 119120, 162, 166, 168, 194296, 205, 208211, 222, 226227, 237, 239, 241, 271

precious 86, 98, 196, 210, 214, 216, 232, 262

Middle Ages 46, 8, 2122, 2728, 3334, 37, 6971, 116117, 125126, 128, 132133, 200201, 205, 212214, 238239, 271272

middle class 117, 184, 266267, 270

miners 5758, 107, 115, 183184, 198199, 201207, 216217, 219220, 222224, 228229, 234, 242244, 263264, 298

mining

administrators 207208

category of holders in Joachimsthal 197

freedom 200205

labour process 212225

See also metal industry; metals; miners

Mols, R. 81

Mommsen, T. 30

money economy 20, 23, 25, 30, 42, 45, 8687, 90, 9293, 96, 172, 174175, 177

monopolies 6, 19, 35, 37, 52, 105, 121, 133, 137, 170, 184

Munich 81, 125, 234

Netherlands 2830, 53, 55, 8082, 106, 108, 115, 117, 135, 137138, 164165, 267, 270271

Newton, Sir Isaac 157, 160161, 167

New World 97, 244, 26364

northern Europe 36, 122, 271

←316 | 317→

origin of capitalism

in France 5

in Germany 55

in Western Europe 247

See also capitalism related entries

Pareto, V.

bourgeois life of 14th to the 16th century 96

on class struggle 116, 264

on first signs of consumert society 54

peasants 6, 1113, 1617, 1922, 3840, 4346, 48, 5051, 5760, 8694, 9699, 101103, 127, 141145, 171, 240242, 246247, 250251, 253254, 266

Pirenne, H. 21, 36

printing industry 2526, 61, 66, 118, 120, 203204, 221, 223, 245, 249251, 254, 271272

Reininghaus, W. 116117

remuneration 211, 215216, 230, 240, 242

Ries, A. 9, 122126, 128, 168, 241, 243

Rome 8, 13, 38, 70, 81, 124, 144, 150, 168, 170, 195

Rousseau, J. J. 129130, 277

Rudolff, C. 124126, 270

Rühlein von C. 193194, 242243

ruling class 45, 48, 60, 93, 205

Sachs, H. 55, 66, 8687, 91, 106, 115, 118

Schoenlank, B. 71, 101103, 114, 116117, 145147, 151, 169, 246

Schopper, H. 53, 158

Schumpeter, J.

history of early capitalism 33

merchants and trade 127

on entrepreneurs 43, 225, 240

on European capitalism, 13th century 3740, 44, 55

on modern bourgeois society 46, 51

on peasants 246, 266

Salamonio, M.S. 128130

Schanz, G. 116, 120

Schreittmann, C. 122, 193, 224

Schwarz, M. 127

seafaring 5, 7, 16, 18, 21, 2526, 203, 205, 262, 264, 271

shareholders 136, 174, 178179, 197198, 200202, 205, 212213, 218, 243, 252

ship building 5, 18, 47, 49, 69, 134, 223, 240, 245, 250251, 261263

silver 133, 138, 195, 199, 205, 208, 210211, 214, 216, 222, 228, 265

slaves 11, 31, 42, 85, 114, 129, 141, 143, 252, 263, 272

Slicher von B. 87

smelting 195196, 201, 204, 207, 211, 216217, 219, 221, 223224, 237, 241242, 245, 250

social classes 37, 40, 44, 60, 65, 182183, 266, 268

social conditions 64, 71, 93, 121, 223

social contract 277278

social labour 50, 56, 6466, 73, 121, 140, 172173, 180, 242, 252

Sohm, R. 133

Sombart, W.

Der Geist des Kapitalismus 115

double-entry bookkeeping 51, 124

on adventurers of the early capitalist era 140

on bourgeois revolution 51

on early Italian capitalism 32

on entrepreneurs 43, 225, 266

on Jewry's role in formation of capitalism 34

on late Middle Ages situation 35

on merchants and trade 127

on peasants 246

on social capital of modern capitalism 33

Smith, A. 6, 26, 35, 46, 92, 180, 183, 267

Stevin, S. 126, 161, 167, 187188, 241

Stieda, W. 116117

Stifel, M. 124126, 264

Strieder, J.

on entrepreneurs 43, 212

on forms of capitalist organizations 133

on merchants and trade 127

on origin of modern capitalism 36, 205

←317 | 318→

on peasants 46, 246

on spirit of capitalism 35, 225

Sweden 49, 165, 225227, 231

Sweezy, P.M. 2021

taxes 87, 9394, 184, 203, 223, 230, 269

technology 25, 27, 64, 6667, 74, 219, 224, 246, 250251

Thompson, E.P. 37

tin 118219, 210, 216, 219, 222, 230, 232233, 237, 241, 245

training 10, 26, 41, 52, 64, 207, 211, 242243, 251252, 254

Troeltsch, E. 15, 2930, 35, 70, 225, 246

capitalism's driving force 25

Lutheranism and Calvinism 35

materialism 30

on religiosity 47

Protestantism and capitalism, relationships 29

Upper Germany 45, 7, 53, 55, 57, 137, 139, 213, 215, 223, 227228, 232233, 241, 244245, 270271

Vasari, G. 8, 241, 264

Venice 45, 19, 21, 118, 123124, 127, 132, 134, 139, 194195, 269, 271

Vogel, K. See Fibonacci

wage labourers 2223, 25, 3637, 50, 52, 174, 198, 200, 202, 235236, 238, 246247, 249250, 271272

wages 8990, 111112, 170178, 183184, 190, 198, 202207, 215, 217218, 223, 230, 233236, 238, 241244, 246247, 253

war industry 49, 52, 66, 204205, 245, 261

water wheels 109, 157, 214, 221222, 236237

waterpower 169, 230, 233, 236, 241

wealth 34, 37, 101, 164, 166, 179, 182, 184, 219, 267268

weavers 45, 99, 103, 108110, 137138, 177, 214, 243244, 248249

Weber, M.

history of early capitalism 3236, 3839

merchants and trade 127

new system of economy and society 266267

on entrepreneurs 43, 225

on peasants 7, 468, 50, 246

on spirit of capitalism 22, 2732

Western Europe 7, 16, 21, 26, 35, 53, 7980, 247, 266

Zimmermann, W. 101, 103, 206