Fostering creativity in the translation of humour. The Stable Hyper-Islands Procedure: Francesca Bianchi
Fostering creativity in the translation of humour. The Stable Hyper-Islands Procedure
1.1. Humour and translation
Humour is a complex event involving one or more features at the linguistic, semantic, pragmatic, cultural and contextual levels (Attardo, 2001). Audio-visual products seem to be an incredibly rich source of instances of humour, not only because of the wide range of comic films and sit-coms, but above all because they share all the possible forms of humour found in text-only products, such as punning, narrative jokes, and linguistic jokes (see e.g., Delabastita, 1997; Nash, 1985) – to mention some widely-studied varieties147 – plus some distinctive types of humour connected to the medium, i.e., visual jokes (Zabalbeascoa, 1996), whose effect relies on the images, and sound jokes (Díaz-Cintas, 2001), whose effect is due to acoustic features such as sound, noise, but also accent, intonation and other suprasegmentals. It must be noticed that, in audio-visual translation (AVT), the use of image and sound is never to be disregarded, even when humour seems to be anchored in language, since these semiotic elements are an integral part of the context.