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Femmes sans frontières

Stratégies transnationales féminines face à la mondialisation, XVIII e -XXI e siècles

Edited By Marie-Pierre Arrizabalaga, Diana Burgos and Mercedes Yusta

L’objectif de cet ouvrage est d’explorer les multiples possibilités que l’espace transnational a offert aux femmes au cours des trois derniers siècles caractérisés par une mondialisation accélérée des échanges. Il propose un éclairage transnational aux études de genre en analysant les stratégies individuelles ou collectives des femmes, dans un monde marqué par l’interconnexion croissante d’une multitude d’acteurs et de réseaux, et où l’Etat-nation a cessé d’être le référent unique. En confrontant des études issues de disciplines différentes (histoire, sociologie, littérature, science politique), en analysant l’évolution des formes de mobilisations féminines sur une période longue et en prenant en compte le genre dans une perspective transnationale, l’ouvrage se propose de décrypter la façon dont les femmes peuvent être actrices des processus sociaux liés à la mondialisation et non uniquement les victimes. Le déploiement transnational de leurs parcours et stratégies pourrait ainsi être lu comme une forme d’ empowerment dans un monde en constante évolution.

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Troisième partieDu transnational au national:bousculer les frontières du genre

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Troisième partie Du transnational au national: Bousculer les frontières du genre Bourgeois and international networks as strategies for female civil servants in late 19th and the early 20th century Europe Beatrice MORING The late 19th century was the time of the rising specialist. Traditional notions were looked down upon, the urban landscape was transformed not only by the tramway and streetlights, but also by piped water, the water closet and milk inspection offices. Old superstition was to be re- placed by new rationality, embodied in the knowledge of technology, chemistry and medicine. A new society needed new officials with the ability to analyse and present rational arguments, specialists with educa- tion. The middle classes had nothing to lose and everything to gain from such a development. The increasing interest in the collection of data and in social progress was manifested in publications such as The Progress and Industria, as well as in international organisations and conferences (Conze & Kocka 1988, 9-16; Hennock 1987, 29; Kuusanmaki 1992, 38- 41). Gaining access to the right qualifications had previously been out of the question for women, but, by the late 19th century, study at home and abroad had become available. Breaking into the civil service was, how- ever, not easy. The education system, health and social care were logical extensions of the female sphere, but it was only with considerable effort that official positions could be obtained. Inspecting the working condi- tions of women and children was one of the first areas...

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