Stratégies transnationales féminines face à la mondialisation, XVIII e -XXI e siècles
Troisième partieDu transnational au national:bousculer les frontières du genre
Troisième partie Du transnational au national: Bousculer les frontières du genre Bourgeois and international networks as strategies for female civil servants in late 19th and the early 20th century Europe Beatrice MORING The late 19th century was the time of the rising specialist. Traditional notions were looked down upon, the urban landscape was transformed not only by the tramway and streetlights, but also by piped water, the water closet and milk inspection offices. Old superstition was to be re- placed by new rationality, embodied in the knowledge of technology, chemistry and medicine. A new society needed new officials with the ability to analyse and present rational arguments, specialists with educa- tion. The middle classes had nothing to lose and everything to gain from such a development. The increasing interest in the collection of data and in social progress was manifested in publications such as The Progress and Industria, as well as in international organisations and conferences (Conze & Kocka 1988, 9-16; Hennock 1987, 29; Kuusanmaki 1992, 38- 41). Gaining access to the right qualifications had previously been out of the question for women, but, by the late 19th century, study at home and abroad had become available. Breaking into the civil service was, how- ever, not easy. The education system, health and social care were logical extensions of the female sphere, but it was only with considerable effort that official positions could be obtained. Inspecting the working condi- tions of women and children was one of the first areas...
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