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National Monuments and Nationalism in 19th Century Germany


Hans A. Pohlsander

No century in modern European history has built monuments with more enthusiasm than the 19th. Of the hundreds of monuments erected, those which sprang from a nation-wide initiative and addressed themselves to a nation, rather than part of a nation, we may call national monuments. Nelson’s Column in London or the Arc de Triomphe in Paris are obvious examples. In Germany the 19th century witnessed a veritable flood of monuments, many of which rank as national monuments. These reflected and contributed to a developing sense of national identity and the search for national unity; they also document an unsuccessful effort to create a «genuinely German» style. They constitute a historical record, quite apart from aesthetic appeal or ideological message. As this historical record is examined, German national monuments of the 19th century are described and interpreted against the background of the nationalism which gave birth to them.


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Bibliographical Abbreviations 251


Bibliographical Abbreviations Note: For articles or books which are cited only once full bibliographical information is given in the footnotes. Abshoff, Deutschlands Ruhm und Stolz Abshoff, Fritz. Deutschlands Ruhm und Stolz: Unsere hervorragendsten vater- ländischen Denkmäler in Wort und Bild. Berlin 1904 (?). ADB Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. Leipzig 1875 ff. Agulhorn, “Die ‘Statuomanie’ im Frankreich des 19. Jahrhunderts” Agulhorn, Maurice. “Die ‘Statuomanie’ im Frankreich des 19. Jahrhunderts.” In Gunther Mai, ed., Das Kyffhäuser-Denkmal 1896–1996 (Cologne 1997) 85–113. AHB II Allgemeine Hannoversche Biographie. Ed. Wilhelm Rothert. Vol. II. Hannover 1914. Albrecht, “König Ludwig II” Albrecht, Dieter. “König Ludwig II von Bayern und Bismarck.” Historische Zeitschrift 270 (2000) 39–64. Alckens, München Alckens, August. München in Erz und Stein (Mainburg 1973). Alings, Monument und Nation Alings, Reinhard. Monument und Nation: Das Bild vom Nationalstaat im Medium Denkmal: Zum Verhältnis von Nation und Staat im deutschen Kaiserreich 1871–1918. (Berlin and New York 1996). Alings, Siegessäule Alings, Reinhard. Die Berliner Siegessäule: Vom Geschichtsbild zum Bild der Geschichte. Berlin 2000. 252 Bibliographical Abbreviations Andrée, Hoffmann von Fallersleben Andrée, Fritz. Hoffmann von Fallers- leben: Des Dichters Leben, Wirken und Gedenkstätten in Wort und Bild. 2nd ed. (Höxter 1972). Andrews, The Nazarenes Andrews, Keith. The Nazarenes: A Brotherhood of German Painters in Rome. Oxford 1964. Antonsen, The Grimm Brothers Antonsen, Elmer H., ed. The Grimm Brothers and the Germanic Past. Amsterdam and Philadelphia 1990. Appelbaum, Das Denkmal Appelbaum, Dirk., ed. Das...

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