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Transcultural Approaches to the Concept of Imperial Rule in the Middle Ages

Edited By Christian Scholl, Torben R. Gebhardt and Jan Clauß

During the Middle Ages, rulers from different regions aspired to an idea of imperial hegemony. On the other hand, there were rulers who deliberately refused to be «emperors», although their reign showed characteristics of imperial rule. The contributions in this volume ask for the reasons why some rulers such as Charlemagne strove for imperial titles, whereas others voluntarily shrank from them. They also look at the characteristics of and rituals connected to imperial rule as well as to the way Medieval empires saw themselves. Thus, the authors in this volume adopt a transcultural perspective, covering Western, Eastern, Northern and Southern Europe, Byzantium and the Middle East. Furthermore, they go beyond the borders of Christianity by including various caliphates and Islamic «hegemonic» rulers like Saladin.

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Index of Names and Places

Index of Names and Places

In the index, the spelling of names and places has been standardised. Therefore, spelling in the index can slightly differ from that in the text. Page numbers with asterisk (*) refer to entries in the footnotes.

Index of Names

A

ʿAbd al-Malik, Umayyād Caliph 191192, 206

ʿAbd ar-Ramān, Emir of Cordoba 192

ʿAbdullāh b. Muammad, Abbasid Caliph 193

Absalon, Archbishop of Lund 272*, 276*, 277

Abul Abbas 9293

Adam of Bremen 263, 274, 343

Adelchis, Prince of Benevento 122

Adrian II, Pope 123*, 124125, 126*

Ælfheah, Bishop of Winchester 167, 176

Ælfweard, King of Wessex 157, 159

Æthelstan, King of the Anglo-Saxons 16, 157183, 245*, 248*

Aio, Bishop of Benevento 122

Alcuin of York, Abbot of St. Martin Tours 102103, 106107, 109

Alexander, the Great 254*, 328, 347348, 350, 356, 361363

Alexios I Komnenos, Byzantine Emperor 231233, 253, 260, 262, 267, 280284, 286

Alexios IV Angelos, Byzantine Emperor 298

Alexios V Doukas, Byzantine Emperor 298

Alfonso II, King of Asturias 92

Alfonso VI, King of León and Castile 305

Alfonso VII, Emperor of all Spain, King of León, Castile and Galicia 164

Alfonso X, King of Castile 310

Alfred, the Great, King of Wessex 157*, 158*, 160, 164*, 168, 245*

Althoff, Gerd 203

Amalafrida 31

Anastasios I Dicorus, Byzantine Emperor 24, 34

Anastasius Bibliothecarius 7172

Andrew II, King of Hungary 303

Andronikos II Palaiologos, Byzantine Emperor 316

Angilberga, Roman Empress 123, 124*, 128, 129*, 149*

Angilbert, Abbot of St. Riquier 102

Ansbert, Archbishop of Milan 134

Arnulf of Carinthia, King of East Francia, Roman Emperor 136

Arnulf of Milan 233234←369 | 370→

Athaliah, Queen of Judah 100

Augustus, Roman Emperor 91, 105, 260, 261*, 275

al-ʿAzīz, Fatimid Caliph 198199, 204

B

Bæringr 290

Bahāʾ ad-Dīn Ibn Šaddād 207, 210216

Baldwin I, Latin Emperor of Constantinople 259, 303

Baldwin II, Latin Emperor of Constantinople 299, 310, 312, 315317

Bang, Peter Fibiger 89

Basil I, Byzantine Emperor 71, 127*

Beatrice of Sicily, Titular Empress of Constantinople 315

Bede the Venerable 16, 160162, 166, 168169, 178183

Béla III, King of Hungary 302

Belisarius 36

Benedict IV, Pope 143

Berengar I, King of Italy 136

Berengar II, King of Italy 241

Berengar of Friuli, King of Italy, Roman Emperor 143, 146147, 155, 164

Bhabha, Homi 13, 300

Boethius 29

Bolesław I, King of Poland 57*, 58*, 322, 324, 335336, 338340, 356

Bolesław II, King of Poland 322, 339340

Bolesław III, Duke of Poland 324, 336337, 339341, 350351

Boniface I of Montferrat, King of Thessalonica 298, 302303

Boniface II, Marquess of Montferrat 316

Borgolte, Michael 94

Boril, Emperor of Bulgaria 303

Boso of Vienne, King of Lower Burgundy and Provence 130131, 134*, 145, 146*, 150

Bryce, James 77, 79, 83

Bumin, qaghan of Türk tribes 43

Burkhardt, Stefan 9

Bush, George W. 7

C

Carloman, King of Bavaria 123124, 129130, 133134

Casimir II, the Just, High Duke of Poland 326*, 343344, 345*

Cassiodorus, Roman senator 29, 3233

Catherine of Courtenay, Titular Empress of Constantinople 296, 318

Charibert I, King of the Franks 24

Charlemagne, Roman Emperor 1112, 1415, 18, 27*, 28, 33, 37, 70, 77, 81, 85117, 120121, 137, 165, 168*, 169, 174, 177, 238240, 251, 255, 261264, 268269, 275, 277, 288289, 292

Charles I of Naples/Anjou, King of Sicily 11, 17, 297, 299, 305, 309311, 314319

Charles I, Count of Valois 296

Charles II, King of Naples 318

Charles II, the Bald, King of West Francia, Roman Emperor 15, 32, 120, 123134, 137←370 | 371→

Charles III, the Fat, King of East Francia, Roman Emperor 15, 134137, 145

Charles Martel, Carolingian Mayor of the Palace 87

Charles, the Younger 80

Childeric, King of the Franks 84*

Chilperic I, King of the Franks 24, 2627, 84*

Christian of Stavelot 68

Classen, Peter 80

Clovis I, King of the Franks 2324, 25*, 2931

Coenwald, Bishop of Worcester 171172, 176

Commodus, Roman Emperor 113

Conrad II, Roman Emperor 247, 267

Constance of Aragon, Queen of Hungary 303

Constance of Sicily, Queen of Aragon 311

Constantine I, the Great, Roman Emperor 20, 23, 2829, 99100, 104*, 105, 174175, 260, 261*, 264

Constantine V, Byzantine Emperor 100

Constantine VI, Byzantine Emperor 95, 100101, 106

Cuthbert, Saint 178, 183

D

Dámusti 290291

Demetrius of Montferrat, King of Thessalonica 303304, 316

Doyles, Michael 328, 365

Drews, Wolfram 10*

E

Eadgyth, Queen of East Francia 170, 175

Edgar, the Peaceful, King of England 157*, 164*, 166*, 176, 245*

Edward, the Confessor, King of England 245*, 247*, 248, 254*, 276

Edward, the Elder, King of the Anglo-Saxons 157159, 175*, 176*, 178

Einhard 9596, 110111

Eirene, Byzantine Empress 37, 95, 100101

Elvira of Castile, Queen of Sicily 305

Emanuel, Byzantine Emperor 290

Emeric I, King of Hungary 302303

Ennodius, Bishop of Parma 24

Erik I, Ejegod, King of Denmark 253, 260, 267, 279283

Erik II, Emune, King of Denmark 271272

Erik IV, Plovpenning, King of Denmark 249, 250*, 293

Ermengard of Italy 145

Eusebius of Caesarea 105

F

Foot, Sarah 157, 169

Formosus, Pope 137

Frederick I, Barbarossa, Roman Emperor 221*, 272, 277278, 280281, 348, 349*

Frederick II, Roman Emperor 249, 250*, 253, 256, 292293, 304, 308312, 316, 350*

Frode Fredegod, King of Denmark 275, 278279←371 | 372→

G

Gallus Anonymus 18, 57*, 321*, 324328, 333342, 345347, 350, 355, 358360, 366

al-Ġazālī 203

Gehler, Michael 8

Gelimer, King of the Vandals 35

Gertrude of Merania, Queen of Hungary 303

Gottschalk, Abbot of Abingdon 177

Gratiana, Byzantine Princess 290291

Gregory of Tours 23, 26

Gundobad, King of the Burgundians 2930

Guy III of Spoleto, King of Italy, Roman Emperor 130, 137, 147148, 150151

H

al-ākim, Fatimid Caliph 199

Hakon I, King of Norway 173, 177

Hakon IV, King of Norway 250*, 253, 288, 293

Halm, Heinz 185

Hameen-Antilla, Jaakko 185

Harald I, Fairhair, King of Norway 173

Harald III, Hardrada, King of Norway 252, 260261, 266, 285286, 290291

Hārūn Ar-Rašīd, Abbasid Caliph 9193

Hauck, Karl 20

Heidemann, Stefan 10*

Heito, Bishop of Basel 238239

Helena Angelina Doukaina 311

Henry I, Roman Emperor 170, 171*, 174175

Henry II, King of England 223, 227

Henry III, Roman Emperor 252, 273, 284

Henry IV, Roman Emperor 267, 337

Henry V, Roman Emperor 283, 339, 341, 350

Henry VI, Roman Emperor 138*, 308

Henry of Flanders, Latin Emperor of Constantinople 259, 303304

Heraclius, Byzantine Emperor 35, 54, 5657, 60*

Hercules 112

Hibernicus Exul 177

Hilderic, King of the Vandals 31

Höfert, Almut 9

Horace 91

Hoyland, Robert G. 9

Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy 316317

Hugh V, Duke of Burgundy 316

Hugh of Arles, King of Italy 15, 141, 145, 147152

Hugh of Fleury 269, 278

Hugh, Count of Tours 238

Hugon of Constantinople, Byzantine Emperor 288289

Huneric, King of the Vandals 28

I

Ibn al-Aīr 207, 209, 211218

Ildibad, King of the Ostrogoths 36

ʿImād ad-Dīn, Atabek of Mosul 208

Innocent III, Pope 303

Innocent IV, Pope 293

Irene cf. Eirene←372 | 373→

Isaac II Angelos, Byzantine Emperor 302303

Isabella of Villehardouin, Princess of Achaea 316

Isidore of Seville 25

Ísleifr Gizurarson, Bishop of Iceland 252, 284

Israel the Grammarian 167, 177

Ištami, qaghan of the Western Türk tribes 4850

J

James of Baux, Prince of Taranto, Titular Emperor of Constantinople 11, 295, 318

Jan Długosz 321*, 326328, 356358, 360, 362*

John VIII, Pope 15, 118, 123, 124*, 125136

John X, Pope 147

John Kinnamos 305

John Skylitzes 64

Joseph, King of the Khazars 67*

Julius Caesar 77*, 347, 349, 356, 360, 363

Justinian I, the Great, Byzantine Emperor 3536, 125*

Justinian II, Byzantine Emperor 6263

K

Kalojan, Emperor of Bulgaria 303

al-Kamil, Sultan of Egypt 309

Kleinschmidt, Harald 159, 163, 167,

Knud II, the Great, King of Denmark, Norway and England 18, 245249, 266267, 273, 275276

Knud IV, King of Denmark, Saint 272, 277

Knud Lavard, Duke of Schleswig, Saint 270272, 279*

Kolodziejczyk, Dariusz 89

Krakus, King of Poland 327*, 346348, 351, 353, 360, 364

L

Ladislaus I, King of Hungary 340*

Lambert I, Margrave of Spoleto 130

Lambert, King of Italy, Roman Emperor 137

Landulf of Milan 233

Lech 328, 352353, 357, 359*

Leo III, Pope 15, 7881, 103, 105106, 108

Leo IV, Pope 120

Leszko III, King of Poland 327, 349350, 363

Liudprand, Bishop of Cremona 227, 240243

Liuvigild, King of the Visigoths 25, 29

Lothair I, Roman Emperor 15, 118121, 137

Lothair II, King of Lotharingia 124125

Lothair III, of Supplinburg, Roman Emperor 270271, 283, 339

Louis I, the Pious, Roman Emperor 15, 117, 119, 121, 137, 274

Louis I, Duke of Anjou 295

Louis II, King of Italy, Roman Emperor 15, 71, 119129, 131, 134, 137, 145, 149*

Louis II, the German, King of East Francia 120, 123, 126, 129, 133

Louis II, the Stammerer, King of West Francia 133←373 | 374→

Louis III, the Blind, King of Italy, Roman Emperor 15, 141143, 145, 149*, 150155

Louis III, the Younger, King of Saxony and Bavaria 129, 132*, 134*, 135

Louis VIII, King of France 224, 309

Louis IX, King of France 309, 313

Louis of Burgundy, Prince of Achaea 316

Luhmann, Niklas 297

Lupold of Bebenburg, Bishop of Bamberg 331332

M

Magnus I, ruler of Sweden 270272

al-Malik a-āli Ismāʾīl, Zengid Emir of Aleppo and Damascus 215217

Malik Šāh I, Sultan of the Seljuq Empire 195

Manfred, King of Sicily 311314

Mann, Michael 7, 328, 338

Manuel I Komnenos, Byzantine Emperor 302

Margaret/Maria of Hungary, Byzantine Empress, Queen of Thessalonica 302303

Maria Komnene 302

Maria of Bulgaria, Byzantine Empress 303

Marozia 148149

Martin IV, Pope 317

Matilda of Hainaut, Princess of Achaea 316

Maurikios, Byzantine Emperor 51, 5354

Menander Protector 4550

Menzel, Ulrich 185, 330, 332, 365

Michael II Angelos, ruler of Epirus 311

Michael VIII Palaiologos, Byzantine Emperor 299, 317

Michael Psellos 54

Mieszko I, Duke of Poland 322, 324, 335

Mieszko II, King of Poland 322, 336

Moravcsik, Gyula 45

Movsēs Dasxuranc’i 59

Muʿāwiya b. Abī Sufyān 190191

Münkler, Herfried 78, 10, 16, 185190, 192, 196197, 200202, 218219, 328, 332

Muammad 188189, 205

al-Muʿizz, Fatimid Caliph 198

N

Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylonia 100

Nees, Lawrence 112

Nicholas I, Pope 124*, 125*, 131*

Niels, King of Denmark 270271

Nikephoros II Phokas, Byzantine Emperor 240

Nikephoros, Patriarch of Constantinople 45, 57

Nikolaos Mystikos 69

Nolte, Hans-Heinrich 78, 1011, 299

Notker of Saint Gall 17, 235239

Nūr ad-Dīn, Zengid Emir of Aleppo and Damascus 208216, 218219←374 | 375→

O

Oberto II, Count of Biandrate 303

Odoacer, King of Italy 3233, 34*, 357

Olaf I, Tryggvason, King of Norway 253, 260

Optantius Porhyrius 104*

Ortiz, Fernando 13

Oswald, King of Northumbria, Saint 178*, 179, 246

Otto I, the Great, Roman Emperor 118, 137, 170, 172*, 175, 176*, 227, 260*, 273274, 277

Otto II, Roman Emperor 137138, 240242, 260, 263, 274

Otto III, Roman Emperor 57*, 58*, 233235, 253, 324, 336, 337

Otto of Freising, Bishop of Freising 269, 272*, 278, 350

Ovid 91

P

Paschal I, Pope 120

Paschal II, Pope 339

Paul the Deacon 9091

Paulinus of Aquileia 9091

Pepin III, the Younger, King of the Franks 86*, 87, 109

Peter III, King of Aragon 311

Peter, Saint 106

Peter of Bitschen 355356

Peter of Pisa 9091

Philip I, Prince of Taranto 295, 318

Philip II, Prince of Taranto 318

Philip of Courtenay, Titular Emperor of Constantinople 315, 317318

Philip of Sicily/Anjou, King of Thessalonica 316317

Piast, the Wheelwright 327, 334335, 346, 358, 360362

Popiel I, Duke 349350, 355, 361*, 363

Popiel II, Duke 334, 335*, 346, 358, 361362

Procopius of Caesarea 31, 33, 3536

Prudentius 105

Q

Quirinus 108*

R

Reccared I, King of the Visigoths 29

Recceswinth, King of the Visigoths 81

Reiner of Montferrat 302

Reynolds, Susan 7

Richgard of Swabia, Roman Empress 135

Richilde of Provence, Roman Empress 131132

Robert I, Duke of Normandy 223230, 233, 284

Robert II, Prince of Taranto 295, 318

Robert Guiscard, Duke of Sicily 305

Roger II, King of Sicily 305, 307

Rollinger, Robert 8

Romulus Augustulus, Roman Emperor 32, 37

Rother, King 289

Rudolph II, King of Burgundy, King of Italy 1516, 140141, 144152, 154156←375 | 376→

S

Said, Edward 13

Saladin, Sultan of Egypt and Syria 16, 186, 207219

Saxo Grammaticus 249, 258259, 271*, 272*, 275282, 284, 286, 292

Schramm, Percy Ernst 20

Siegfried III, Count of Weimar-Orlamünde 277

Sigismund, King of the Burgundians 34

Sigurd I, Magnusson, King of Norway 230233, 252, 262, 281284

Sihtric, King of York 161162

Silvester I, Pope 20

Sizabul cf. Ištami

Snorri Sturluson 252, 265, 267, 283

Spes, Byzantine noblewoman 291

Stephen II, Pope 86*

Stephen III, King of Hungary 302

Stephen IV, Pope 15

Stephen V, Pope 135136

Svend Aggesen 249, 259, 273275, 277278, 283, 292

Symeon I, the Great, Emperor of the Bulgarians and Romans 74, 164166

T

Tassilo III, Duke of Bavaria 87

Theodahad, King of the Ostrogoths 23

Theodore Komnenos Dukas, ruler of Epirus 304

Theodore of Tarsus, Archbishop of Canterbury 167

Theodoric I, the Great, King of the Ostrogoths 11, 14, 16, 2334, 3739, 90, 111

Theodoric II, King of the Visigoths 25*, 32

Theodoricus Monachus 259262, 274, 283

Theodulf of Orléans 82*, 96114

Theophanes, the Confessor 45, 56

Theophylaktos Simokates 45, 5153

Thorsteinn Drómundr 291

Thrasamund, King of the Vandals 31

Thyra, Queen of Denmark 273274, 277

Tiberius II, Byzantine Emperor 47

U

ʿUbayd Allāh 197198

Urban IV, Pope 313314

ʿUmān b. ʾAffān, Caliph 189190

V

Valdemar I, the Great, King of Denmark 272, 276277, 280

Valdemar II, King of Denmark 249, 250*, 278*

Venantius Fortunatus 24

Vergil 91, 113

Vigilius, Pope 125*

Vincentius Kadłubek 18, 321*, 324328, 333, 342348, 350352, 353*, 355, 356*, 359361, 364

W

Wace 17, 223225, 227230

Wanda, Queen of Poland 348, 353, 355, 356*, 360, 364←376 | 377→

Wasilewski, Tadeusz 5758*

Welsch, Wolfgang 13

Widukind, Duke of the Saxons 89

William II of Villehardouin, Prince of Achaea 311, 316317

William VI, Marquess of Montferrat 303, 316

William VII, Marquess of Montferrat 316

William of Jumièges 228

William of Malmesbury 159*, 160*, 174, 177, 181, 284, 285*

Y

Yolanda of Courtenay, Queen of Hungary 303

Yolande of Montferrat, Byzantine Empress 316

Z

Zemarchos 4849

Zeno, Byzantine Emperor 34

Ziebel, qaghan 5758

Index of Places

A

Aachen/Aix-la-Chapelle 27*, 90, 92, 95, 110*, 117

Abingdon 167, 177, 246*

Achaea, Principality 295

Andernach 132*

Andorra 78*

Aquitaine 87

B

Bagdad 92, 193, 195

Besançon 125*

Bulgaria 43*, 61, 63, 70, 73, 74*, 75*, 76, 164, 166, 246, 297*

Burgundy 15, 30, 139140, 143145, 149150, 152154, 332

C

Cairo 198

Constantinople 17, 2829, 5455, 108109, 125*, 191, 223230, 233, 238, 240241, 253, 256, 259, 265, 279280, 282, 284285, 287*, 288, 290292, 294, 295319

Corfu 295, 312, 315

Crete 298

D

Damascus 190, 193

Damiette 310

Denmark 245, 248*, 249*, 252, 257, 260263, 268274, 277, 279, 292293, 357

E

Eamont 161162, 168, 177

Egypt 189190, 196200, 206, 209215, 218

England 157, 160161, 166175, 245*, 247249, 258, 332, 339*

F

France 26, 31, 78, 139, 293, 309, 332333, 343, 365←377 | 378→

G

Galicia 303

Germany 78, 171, 284*, 332, 339*

Gniezno 57*, 58*, 334, 336337, 352*, 353, 360

Greece 254*, 266, 279280, 296*, 311, 315*

H

Hadrumetum/Hunericopolis 28

Hungary 302

I

Iberian Peninsula 92*, 97, 191194, 196, 246

Iceland 245, 256, 260*, 263, 268*, 269*, 283, 287*, 292

Ingelheim 87

Iraq 7, 189190, 193196, 198200, 218

Italy 1517, 26, 34, 37, 119*, 122, 129131, 270, 284*, 295, 298299, 304315, 332, 343, 358

J

Jerusalem 94, 106, 191, 229, 249*, 253, 260, 265, 281282

Jumièges 87

K

Karlsburg 28

Kraków 323, 327, 364

M

Marseille 310

Mecca 198

Medina 190, 198

Mentana 81

N

Negroponte 312

Nicaea 98101

Nomentum cf. Mentana

Northumbria 161, 162, 178

Norway 173, 177, 248*, 250, 257, 260261, 266, 276, 283, 285, 292293, 357

P

Paderborn 28*

Palestine 307

Paris 29, 290, 343

Pavia 27, 89, 129, 133, 136, 151

Pisa 310

Poland 18, 321365 passim

Provence 144145, 152153

R

Ravenna 27, 36, 39, 8990, 131, 135, 313

Reccopolis 29

Rome 26, 7882, 108110, 117121, 128135, 165, 166*, 169, 186, 245246, 247*, 257, 259, 266*, 267, 279*, 284*, 313, 328*, 344, 350, 354

S

Salamiyya 197

Sicily 304306, 310314, 317

Silesia 323, 327, 355356

Soviet Union 7

Spain cf. Iberian Peninsula

Sweden 250, 275, 293294, 357

T

Theodoricopolis 28

Thessalonica 312←378 | 379→

Ticinum cf. Pavia

Tortona 132133

Tours 24

Trento 123, 129*

Tunis 317

U

USA 7

V

Venice 302, 317

Verona 27, 123, 124*, 129*

W

Winchester 158*, 159, 167, 169*, 246*

Z

Zara 302303←379 | 380→