Show Less
Open access

Cultures of Solitude

Loneliness – Limitation – Liberation

Edited By Ina Bergmann and Stefan Hippler

This collection of essays comprises cultural analyses of practices of eremitism and reclusiveness in the USA, which are inseparably linked to the American ideals of individualism and freedom. Covering a time frame from the eighteenth to the twenty-first century, the essays study cultural products such as novels, poems, plays, songs, paintings, television shows, films, and social media, which represent the costs and benefits of deliberate withdrawal and involuntary isolation from society. Thus, this book offers valuable contributions to contemporary cultural discourses on privacy, surveillance, new technology, pathology, anti-consumerism, simplification, and environmentalism. Solitaries can be read as trailblazers for an alternative future or as symptoms of a pathological society.

Show Summary Details

| 305 →

Index

A

Abbey, Edward 189

abolitionism 13, 27, 139148

absence 13, 16, 49, 71, 73, 146, 206, 236, 246249, 251, 252

abstinence 109

Adams, Ansel 23

Adams, John “Grizzly” 23

addiction 231, 237239

alcoholism 166, 239

drugs 166, 237

substance abuse 236, 293

adolescence 48, 223, 225, 288, 290294

adulthood 225, 287, 290, 291, 293, 294

aestheticism 28, 64, 66, 68, 123, 127, 129131, 155, 156, 160, 162, 166, 218, 238, 277

African American 22, 23

afterlife 208

age 61, 294

ageing 16, 21, 26, 61, 62, 74

old age 16, 17, 21, 26, 61, 62, 73, 74, 251, 288, 293, 294

Agee, James 173

A Death in the Family 173

agency 87, 109, 166, 204, 210, 296

Alaskan Bush People 27, 74

Alcoholics Anonymous 231, 238241

Alcott, Louisa May 109, 115, 118

“Behind a Mask, or, A Woman’s Power” 109

A Long Fatal Love Chase 118

Diana and Persis 118

Little Women 115, 118

alienation 15, 20, 26, 28, 57, 105107, 144, 149, 174, 196, 225, 231, 236239, 241, 247, 266, 268

Alighieri, Dante 26, 5155, 57

The Divine Comedy 26, 51, 53

allegory 20, 22, 52

Allston, Washington 127

Elijah in the Desert 127

aloneness 1316, 23, 25, 26, 28, 29, 4551, 53, 5558, 64, 68, 72, 80, 89, 103, 106, 113, 123, 124, 127, 139, 155, 156, 162166, 173, 187, 188, 191, 192, 196, 208, 210, 231, 232, 245, 247, 252, 254, 259261, 263268, 270, 271, 278, 287297

alterity 233, 236, 238

ambition 65, 101, 103, 105, 111, 114, 116, 117

ambivalence 101, 105, 198, 222, 247253, 277

amelioration 17, 88, 90, 127

American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society 142

American Anti-Slavery Society 139, 141144, 148

American Studies 25

An Account of the Wonderful Old Hermit’s Death, and Burial 66, 68

anchorage 61, 72

anchoress 14

anchorhold 14

anchorite 14, 62, 64, 71, 72, 75, 109, 157, 160, 166

ancient times 160

Anderson, Sherwood 28, 173, 217

Winesburg, Ohio 173, 217

Andrejevic, Mark 266

androgyny 103, 104, 113, 114

Angles of a Landscape 21

angst 232 ← 305 | 306 →

anomie 155, 158, 163, 166, 195

anonymity 56, 195, 239, 240, 296

antebellum period 117, 123, 139, 141

anthropocene 16, 189, 277

anthropology 13, 29, 178, 179

anti-consumerism 17

antinomy 189, 196, 233, 234, 237

Anti-Slavery Convention of American Women 141

antisocial behavior 265, 269, 270

anxiety 79, 80, 82, 114, 165, 293, 296

social anxiety 287, 290, 291, 296

anxiety disorder 107, 109, 212, 290, 291

agoraphobia 21, 212

claustrophobia 21

scopophobia 21, 107

Apel, Karl-Otto 46, 47

apocalypse 238, 248

Arcadia 188

Arminen, Ilkka 239

Armstrong, John 68

The Art of Preserving Health 68

art 13, 18, 21, 2327, 66, 102, 103, 106, 107, 109, 111, 113116, 124, 125, 127130, 159, 162, 169, 174, 204, 205, 209213, 217, 236, 238, 292

Art History 26

asceticism 16, 17, 20, 27, 108, 156160, 198, 236

Ashmore, Leonard 78

“Mr. Boots Warms Up for his Birthday” 78

Auburn system 126

audience 45, 66, 6870, 72, 74, 106, 107, 127, 203, 204, 209, 210, 212, 249, 252, 269

Auster, Paul 4648, 55, 57, 245

The Invention of Solitude 46

author 20, 22, 28, 73, 83, 101, 102, 104, 111, 116, 155, 160162, 164, 166, 192, 193, 206, 211, 236, 240, 277, 279, 282

autism 21, 112, 269

autobiography 22, 25, 26, 101, 103, 115, 116, 217

autonomy 81, 88, 89, 92, 93, 240, 295

political autonomy 13

Averill, James 246

awakening 15, 102, 108, 251

awareness 18, 75, 82, 87, 127, 147, 194, 208, 235, 240, 269, 282

self-awareness 48, 86, 231

B

back-to-nature 72, 189

backwoods 62, 74, 270, 281

Bacon, Margaret Hope 142

Bakhtin, Mikhail 214

ballet 14, 110

Banfield, E.J. 275, 276, 279, 280, 283

“Ruthless Collectors” 279

“The Gentle Art of Beachcombing” 275

Confessions of a Beachcomber 279

Barbour, John D. 17

barrio 217, 221

Barrymore, Drew 24

Barthelme, Donald 222

“The Balloon” 222

Bass, Rick 19

“The Hermit’s Story” 19

Bates, Elisha 126

Baynard, Edward 68

“Health” 68

Beale, Big Edie Bouvier 23

Beale, Little Edie Bouvier 23

Bechtold, John 204

“‘Before You Became Improbable’” 204 ← 306 | 307 →

behavior 50, 80, 84, 92, 156, 180, 235, 263265, 268270, 275, 287, 288, 295

normative behavior 288, 290, 295

belief 179, 180

Bellah, Robert 179, 180, 181

Bellow, Saul 245

Mr. Sammler’s Planet 245

belongingness hypothesis 292

benefit 15, 16, 29, 66, 68, 71, 81, 82, 86, 140, 205, 259, 270, 287, 288, 291294, 296, 297

Bennett, Jane 197

Bergland, Renée 113, 116

Bergmann, Ina 169, 217, 245, 247, 253

And Then the Child Becomes a Woman 217

Bergmann-Franken, Alois 18

Old Man Loy 18

Berry, Wendell 282

Beston, Henry 28, 189191, 193, 196

The Outermost House 28, 189, 192

Bible 61, 71

Bildungsroman 102, 217

biography 14, 26, 27, 73, 101, 203, 207, 212

biopic 23

Blackmur, R.P. 179

blog 14

body 16, 20, 26, 27, 4855, 57, 71, 88, 90, 104, 105, 108, 111, 112, 114, 124, 161, 162, 172, 208, 211, 241, 289

bodily needs 20

disembodiment 108

embodiment 47, 48, 54, 57, 62, 123, 125, 208

Body Studies 26

Bolingbroke, Henry St. John 88, 89, 91, 94

“Of the True Use of Retirement and Study” 88

Boots, Gypsy 27, 72, 73

Bare Feet and Good Things to Eat 72

Robert Bootzin 72

The Gypsy in Me 72

boredom 155, 163, 174, 289

Bosson, Jennifer K. 210

Boston Clique 145, 146, 148, 149

Boston Female Anti-Slavery Society 141

Bowker, Julie C. 261

Bradburn, George 141

Brake, Samuel 65, 66

broadside 14

Brodkey, Harold 245

Brown, Gillian 85

Buckland, James, and John Fielding 26, 27, 63, 64, 66, 75

A Wonderful Discovery of a Hermit, who Lived Upwards of Two Hundred Years 27, 63

Buell, Lawrence 280

Burke, Kenneth 187, 189, 198

Burkett, Nancy 149

Burleigh, Charles C. 144, 145

C

cabin 14, 26, 28, 187, 188, 190194, 196, 197, 199, 281, 282

cabin book 188, 189

cabin experience 193

cabin fever 195

cabin porn 188

cabin scenario 28, 188, 190

Campbell, Edie, and Jack Lynch 28, 203, 213

Emily Dickinson & I 28, 203, 209, 210, 212, 213

capitalism 19

Cash, Johnny 177

“Cold Lonesome Morning” 177

“I’ll Fly Away” 177 ← 307 | 308 →

castigation 20, 108

catatonia 112

catharsis 164, 165

Cather, Willa 24

cave 19, 26, 58, 63, 64, 71, 83, 84, 107, 156, 245, 252

Cavell, Stanley 235

celebrity 72, 211

cell 14, 70, 71, 80, 9092, 126

monastic cell 156

cell phone 261, 289, 296

Chambers, Lee V. 142

Chapman, Maria Weston 142, 149

Chatwin, Bruce 282

In Patagonia 282

Chavez, Denise 217, 224

The Last of the Menu Girls 217, 224

Cheever, John 245

Cheyne, George 67

An Essay on Health and Long Life 67

Chicano 220

childhood 26, 105, 145, 147, 173, 174, 220, 225, 232234, 237, 287, 288, 290294

choice 15, 51, 5458, 68, 85, 91, 93, 124, 143, 144, 146, 147, 155, 197, 207, 263, 287, 291, 295, 296

Chomei, Kamo no 275277, 280, 283

“An Account of My Hut” 275, 277

Chopin, Kate 22, 24, 101, 115

“The Maid of Saint Philippe” 22, 115

The Awakening 101, 115

Christianity 14, 157

church 14, 206, 207

cinematography 249, 252

Cisneros, Sandra 28, 217, 218, 220222

The House on Mango Street 28, 217, 218, 221, 226

citizenship 16, 105, 126, 140, 269, 280

city 14, 15, 18, 2226, 28, 52, 56, 57, 68, 72, 84, 90, 91, 111, 123, 124, 127129, 131, 174, 197, 198, 222, 223, 231, 233, 236, 245253, 275277, 283

urban jungle 28

urban recreation 72, 276

urbanization 15

Civil War 49, 101, 139, 148

civilization 14, 19, 26, 69, 71, 223, 250, 276

Clark, Huguette 15, 24

Clinton, Hillary 117

cognition 52, 158, 178, 180, 190, 287, 288, 294

Cohen, Ira J. 156, 159

Solitary Action 156, 159

Cohen, Michael P. 280

Cole, Nat King 24, 72

“Nature Boy” 24, 72

collectivity 45, 4750, 55, 57, 192, 238, 264, 276, 282

collective universe 26, 45, 46, 56

Collyer, Homer Lusk 21, 24

Collyer, Langley Wakeman 21, 24

colonial era 17

coming of age 80, 108, 249, 251, 253

communality 26, 28, 45, 52, 231, 240, 241, 266, 271

communication 51, 125, 130, 131, 204, 231, 232, 234, 237239, 252, 261, 267, 268, 289, 295, 296

communicative act 45

computer-mediated communication 289, 295, 296

miscommunication 232

simulated communication 270

virtual communication 268, 296

communion 112, 191, 192

community 16, 26, 28, 29, 45, 53, 54, 70, 74, 81, 123, 125, 126, 128, 131, 145, 156, 180, 197, 207, 219221, ← 308 | 309 → 231, 239241, 248, 265, 267, 275, 277280, 282284, 288, 293

local community 207

online community 261, 267, 268, 270

companionship 19, 50, 56, 80, 90, 108, 123, 140, 172, 173, 187, 194, 237, 266268, 278, 282, 292

Comparative Studies 26

computer game 14

Confederate Army 139

confinement 1416, 19, 21, 7982, 85, 88, 92, 101, 107, 110, 116, 126, 146, 220, 222, 250, 268

domestic confinement 80, 83, 91, 92

epistemological confinement 79

marital confinement 80

physical confinement 79

solitary confinement 155, 158

conflict 103, 109, 207, 208, 225, 248250, 292, 295

conformity 17

connection 45, 61, 75, 80, 206, 217, 231, 232, 234238, 248, 275

Constitution of the United States 139

constitutional era 17

consumerism 19

contemplation 18, 21, 53, 54, 64, 71, 86, 87, 9193, 109, 123128, 130, 159, 204, 209, 212, 220, 236, 253, 260, 264, 265, 269, 278

convention 213

conversion 195

Conway, Eustace 23, 73

Coplan, Robert J. 261

coquetry 79, 81, 82, 84, 85

Cordell, Larry, and Jim Rushing 176

“Lonesome Standard Time” 176

Cornaro the Venetian 67

cost 15, 29, 82, 84, 101, 114, 115, 266, 287, 288, 290, 292294, 296

country 14, 15, 197

courtship 79, 81, 8991

Cowperthwaite, Samuel 134

The State Penitentiary for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania 134

Crane, Stephen 26, 49, 55

The Red Badge of Courage 26, 49

creativity 16, 18, 21, 26, 52, 104, 111, 116, 125, 127, 129, 130, 204, 211, 213, 234, 292

Creep 250

crowd 28, 58, 70, 231, 233, 236, 237, 245, 252, 288

Cultural History 13, 26, 27, 48, 51, 55

Cultural Narratology 26

Cultural Studies 26, 27

culture 13, 14, 17, 18, 25, 29, 46, 47, 51, 55, 58, 65, 69, 74, 79, 85, 101, 105, 116, 131, 166, 169, 178, 179, 188, 198, 204, 205, 213, 218, 220, 221, 232, 245, 246, 259, 269, 279, 287, 295

cultural experience 57, 198

cultural imaginary 203, 206, 210

cultural norms 203, 295

cultural practice 17

cultural product 13, 17, 19, 104, 175, 259, 260

cultural representation 13, 22, 25, 29

popular culture 62

cultures of solitude 13, 2529, 101, 105, 117, 217, 282, 295

female cultures of solitude 105, 117

global cultures of solitude 25

Cushman, Charlotte 104

D

danger 80, 81, 128, 159, 166, 196, 234, 239, 259, 261, 266, 268, 271

Davidson, Cathy 80 ← 309 | 310 →

death 17, 1921, 50, 54, 55, 58, 79, 80, 84, 102, 106, 108, 111114, 146, 173, 208, 232, 241, 251, 253, 270, 281

death-in-life 108113

Declaration of Independence 13

Declaration of Sentiments of the American Anti-Slavery Society 141

deconstruction 232

Defoe, Daniel 69, 125, 221

Crusoe tales 125

Robinson Crusoe 23, 64, 69, 75, 125, 221

Deleuze, Gilles 46, 47, 219

deliberation 15, 16, 26, 54, 79, 83, 86, 8893, 123, 207, 221, 260, 268271

domestic deliberation 27, 79, 90

DeLillo, Don 24

demise 21, 71, 80, 270

democracy 16, 69, 74, 75, 88, 140, 207, 262, 270

deliberative democracy 207

undemocratic behavior 269, 270

deprivation 16, 116, 289

Derrida, Jacques 252

Descartes, René 56, 247

Discourse on Method 56

desert 14, 56, 73, 156, 231, 236, 237, 240, 245, 247, 248, 288

Desert Fathers 14

Desert Mothers 14

desire 130

desolation 27, 55, 101, 106, 114

desperation 20

destructiveness 234, 236

detachment 288

development 26, 50, 102, 204, 209, 232, 262, 263, 265, 271, 292294

dialogue 26, 55, 209, 238240, 247

Diana of the Dunes 20, 24

DiCaglio, Joshua 276, 279

“Ironic Ecology” 276

dichotomy 16, 20, 27, 112, 114, 123, 144, 181

Dickinson, Emily 18, 21, 24, 28, 170, 171, 203213, 215

“Gathered into the Earth” 170

“The Loneliness One dare not sound” 170

“There Is a Solitude of Space” 18

“There is another Loneliness” 170

“Wild Nights, Wild Nights” 210

Emily Dickinson Museum 204, 214

Queen Recluse 21

diet 17, 26, 65, 67, 70, 72, 74, 107, 109

fasting 20

vegan diet 18

vegetarian diet 21, 107, 109

difference 114

digital age 29, 73, 259, 260, 263, 268, 270

Dijck, José van 259

Dillard, Annie 189, 194, 282

disability 17

discipline 166

disconnection 166, 174, 231, 265

discourse 17, 18, 49, 55, 62, 79, 81, 82, 127, 189, 259, 260, 263, 268, 271, 276, 277

disengagement 155, 246250, 252, 277

disinterest 17, 79

distance 13, 64, 69, 71, 75, 93, 124, 128, 205, 218, 221, 236, 237, 245248, 268

distress 20, 28, 155, 163, 164, 166, 170, 291

diversity 63

divinity 87, 158, 179

Dixon, Chris 140

Docherty, Thomas 233, 236

Alterities: Criticism, History, Representation 233 ← 310 | 311 →

Doctorow, E.L. 21

Homer & Langley 21

documentary 14, 23, 73, 74

domesticity 26, 56, 69, 79, 8082, 86, 88, 92, 93, 103, 105, 124, 128, 140, 146, 208, 211, 213, 220, 224

Don’t Breathe 251

Douglass, Frederick 143, 145

Dowdell, Coby 17, 75, 107, 207, 221, 269

Downing, Alexander Jackson 129

drama 22, 26, 28, 203, 206, 210

dramatization 203, 204, 206

Dual Survival 74

Dubkin, Leonard 223

My Secret Places 224

durability 61, 69

Durkheim, Emile 166, 167

Suicide 166

dystopia 270

E

early national period 126

Eastern State Penitentiary 126

eccentricity 23, 62, 70, 73, 108

Eco, Umberto 47

ecoambiguity 29, 275279, 281, 283

ecocriticism 26, 275, 280

ecological footprint 16

ecology 16, 26, 27, 6165, 198, 199, 222, 223, 275, 276, 280282

ironic ecology 277

economy 13, 25, 63, 66, 69, 71, 81, 166, 220, 247

ecosystem 63, 283

ecotopia 226

Eden 63, 68, 143, 172, 224

education 54, 79, 88, 102, 103, 110, 125, 127, 252, 284

Edwards, Jonathan 24

egalitarianism 72, 145

Eggers, Dave 29, 259261, 263, 266268, 270, 271

The Circle 29, 259261, 263, 264, 266, 268, 271

Eichendorff, Joseph von 117

The Marble Statue 117

eighteenth century 24, 26, 53, 56, 61, 62, 6669, 79, 80, 8284, 87, 88, 93, 109, 124, 126

elegy 66, 176

Eliot, T.S. 170

The Use of Poetry and the Use of Criticism 170

Ellison, Ralph 22

Invisible Man 22

elusiveness 195, 212

email 261, 265

emancipation 13, 88, 112, 116, 217, 218, 221

Emerson, Ralph Waldo 17, 123, 130, 174, 175, 225

“Nature” 175

emotion 124, 130, 131, 140, 145, 147, 156, 160, 162164, 166, 173, 177, 208, 213, 231, 246, 267, 268, 287, 294

empathy 207, 208, 213

enclosure 15, 57, 124

endurance 63

engagement 75, 87, 105, 125, 128, 130, 140, 212, 236, 275, 278281, 293, 295

engaged citizen 280, 283

engaged pastoral 29, 275279, 281, 284

English Romanticism 25

engraving 14

enigma 27, 61

enlightenment 20, 27, 61, 62, 64, 180, 250

entrapment 116, 234

environment 15, 65, 70, 91, 115, 205, 222, 245, 246, 260, 277 ← 311 | 312 →

environmental exploitation 19

environmentalism 17, 18, 20, 26, 62, 64, 198, 199, 276, 277, 280, 282, 283

safe environment 296

social environment 206, 246, 281

virtual environment 266

environmental writing 276, 280, 282, 283

epigraph 193, 196, 197

epilogue 193

Epimenides 46

epiphany 27, 123, 124, 130, 159, 173, 174, 175

epistemology 88, 89, 250, 279

eremitage 109

eremitism 1318, 20, 24, 62, 72, 73, 101, 114

female eremitism 28

essay 88, 92, 123, 127, 130, 131, 140, 157160, 162, 175, 278

estrangement 162, 247

eternity 70, 71, 208

ethnicity 26, 28

interethnicity 218

exceptionalism 61, 72

exclusion 17, 53, 62, 70, 80, 82, 84, 86, 125, 295

exile 15, 18, 61, 105, 221

expansionism 13, 62, 72

exploration 63, 180, 231, 260

F

fable of female reclusion 79, 80, 82, 83, 8587, 8994

failure 196

fairy tale 103, 224

faith 19, 55, 146, 157, 180

fallen woman 80, 84, 86

familiarity 66, 174, 218

family 2022, 45, 47, 58, 73, 80, 140, 141, 144, 145, 147, 156, 164, 187, 197, 203, 206209, 219, 224, 226, 234, 281, 287, 288

Fat Guys in the Woods 74

fate 80, 109, 125, 210

fear 164, 165, 290

feme covert 80, 81, 88, 92

feme sole 79, 81, 92

femininity 79, 80, 92, 106, 113, 114

feminism 104, 109, 116, 117, 226

proto-feminism 205, 213

Ferguson, Frances 246

Ferguson, Robert A. 247

fiction 13, 22, 25, 28, 82, 101, 140, 170, 172, 173, 174, 192, 193, 231, 236, 239, 246, 248, 249, 259

crime fiction 245

detective fiction 245

horror fiction 245

nonfiction 19, 83, 89

film 19, 2224, 26, 28, 58, 72, 125, 237, 245, 246, 248254

horror film 249, 251

serial killer film 246

Film Studies 26

fin-de-siècle 189

Finding Forrester 28, 250, 251

Fitz, Karsten 253

flâneur 53

Follen, Charles 145

forest 15, 52, 62, 69, 70, 72, 85, 87, 117, 124, 128, 155, 163, 169, 174, 195, 245, 275, 278

Fort Fisher Hermit 73

fortitude 125

Foster, Hannah Webster 27, 7983, 8588, 91, 94

The Boarding School 82, 86, 94

The Coquette 27, 79, 80, 82, 85, 86, 94

Foster, Stephen S. 143

Foucault, Michel 14, 223, 263

“Of Other Spaces” 14, 223 ← 312 | 313 →

freak 65, 74, 114

freedom 1317, 1922, 27, 7982, 88, 92, 101104, 106, 107, 111, 113115, 142, 148, 164, 172, 191, 213, 222, 250, 264

freedom of speech 142

personal freedom 13

religious freedom 13

unfreedom 16

Freedom’s Cottage 147

Freeman, Mary E. Wilkins 22, 115

“The New England Nun” 22, 115

Freud, Sigmund 179

Friedrich, Caspar David 127, 128, 129, 135

Wanderer above the Sea of Fog 127, 135

friendship 21, 50, 53, 58, 67, 80, 82, 84, 102, 111, 140, 144, 145147, 155, 156, 163, 165, 170, 171, 203, 206, 209, 221225, 251, 252, 295

frontier 13, 62, 68, 71, 190

frugality 16, 20, 108, 109

Fuller, Margaret 104

Fuss, Diana 215

G

Gaiman, Neil 245

Sandman-series 245

garden 63, 108, 109, 217, 223226, 283

rambunctious garden 223, 224

Gardner, Dorothy 208, 209, 213

Eastward in Eden 208

Garrison, Helen Benson 140, 146

Garrison, William Lloyd 27, 139148

Gautier, Théophile 104

gaze 106, 107, 127129, 241

gender 2628, 91, 99, 101, 103, 105, 107, 109, 116, 125, 207, 218

alternative gender roles 20

gender binary 105, 114, 116

gender norms 20, 27, 84, 105, 111, 115, 116

traditional gender roles 20, 92, 103, 111, 114116, 145

Gender History 26

Gender Studies 26

genius 105, 113, 159, 250, 253

Gentleman of the Faculty 67

Concise Observations on the Nature of our Common Food 67

Gessner, David 276

Ghost Dog 250

Giddens, Anthony 164

Gifford, Sanford 27, 124, 126, 128, 129, 133, 135, 136

Hunter Mountain 128, 136

Kaaterskill Falls 124, 129, 133

The Artist Sketching at Mount Desert, Maine 128, 129, 135

Gilbert, Elizabeth 23, 73

Eat, Pray, Love 73

The Last American Man 23

Gilbert, Sandra M., and Susan Gubar 114

The Madwoman in the Attic 114

Gilman, Charlotte Perkins 220

“The Yellow Wallpaper” 220

Glaspell, Susan 28, 203, 206, 207, 209, 213

Alison’s House 28, 203, 206, 208

Glück, Louise 245

God 52, 55, 61, 73, 86, 87, 93, 105, 113, 116, 142, 159, 178, 209, 240

Good, Cassandra A. 145

Graham, Jorie 245

grave 66, 108, 109, 113

Graves, Richard 62

Gray, Alice 20, 24

Green, George Dawes 58

The Caveman’s Valentine 58

Greenberg, Richard 21, 24

The Dazzle 21 ← 313 | 314 →

Grey Gardens (film) 24

grief 84, 163, 164, 176

Grossman, Lev 265

Grosvenor, Benjamin 67

Health 67

grotto 61, 83, 85

Gunn, Giles B. 179

The Interpretation of Otherness 179

H

Halpin, K.D., and Kate Nugent 28, 203, 211, 213

Emily Unplugged 28, 203, 209, 210

Hanks, Tom 23

Hannoun, Michel 46

Harding, Paul 22

Tinkers 22

hardship 191

Harju, Bärbel 253

Harrill, Robert 73

Hassett, Constance W. 145

haunting 236

Haviland, John 126, 134

Hawkley, Louise C. 294

Hawthorne, Nathaniel 19, 22, 24

“The Man of Adamant” 19

“Wakefield” 22

The House of the Seven Gables 22

Haywood, Eliza 27, 8385, 8991, 94

Epistles for the Ladies 90

Secret Histories, Novels and Poems 94

The British Recluse 27, 83, 85, 89, 90, 94

The Female Spectator 90, 94

healing 176, 240, 293

health 61, 62, 66, 6772, 74, 82, 161, 278, 287, 292294

Heath, Dave 23

A Dialogue with Solitude 23

Hemingway, Ernest 172

The Green Hills of Africa 172

hermaphrodite 103106, 115, 116

hermeticism 47, 169, 170, 275, 279

hermit 1320, 2227, 55, 6170, 7274, 8284, 88, 90, 91, 93, 101, 102, 105, 107110, 115, 116, 123, 125, 127, 156, 157, 190, 191, 207, 220, 221, 224, 231, 236, 237, 246, 249, 269, 276, 277

female hermit 27, 117

garden hermit 109, 237

hermit in nature 26, 250

mountain hermit 281

ornamental hermit 109

pop hermit 72

religious hermit 157

town hermit 14

urban hermit 246, 249

hermit’s manuscript 17, 71, 107, 113, 269

hermit’s tale 18, 20, 22, 64, 68, 83, 84, 107, 113, 115, 221

female hermit’s tale 115, 116

hermitage 21, 84, 108110, 112, 113, 224

hermitism 88, 93, 116, 207, 217221, 226, 245, 269

Hermits of Harlem 21, 24

heroism 45, 49, 50, 74, 80, 82, 84, 86, 101, 125, 159, 231, 276

superhero 246, 249

heterochronicity 19

heterotopia 14, 19, 218, 223, 224

crisis heterotopia 223

Higginson, Thomas Wentworth 147

hikikomori 295

Hill, John 67

The Old Man’s Guide to Health and Longer Life 67

Hispanic 217, 219

historiography 209 ← 314 | 315 →

history 13, 26, 45, 46, 48, 57, 65, 124, 140, 160, 224, 260, 278

Holland, Mary 232

Hollander, John 175

“Sunday A.M. Not in Manhattan” 175

home 18, 49, 50, 56, 79, 103, 117, 131, 140, 146148, 161, 174, 187190, 217222, 225, 226, 278, 288

homelessness 197, 221

Homer, Winslow 27

homo religious 178

Hopper, Edward 23, 24, 28, 174, 175

Early Sunday Morning 175

Hotel Room 23

Morning Sun 175

Nighthawks 23

People in the Sun 175

Rooms by the Sea 175

Second Story Sunlight 175

Sun in an Empty Room 175

Sunlight on Brownstones 175

Woman in the Sun 175

Horace 161

Hornocker, Maurice 281

horror 23, 53, 232, 233, 236, 270

house 14, 21, 84, 111, 128, 147, 165, 188, 190192, 197, 199, 208, 217, 218, 221, 278, 283

Howe, Julia Ward 27, 101106, 108, 109, 111, 113117

“Battle-Hymn of the Republic” 101, 117

“To a Beautiful Statue” 117

Passion-Flowers 101, 104

The Hermaphrodite 27, 101105, 107, 108, 111118

Howe, Samuel Gridley 103

Hudson River Valley School 175

Hughes, Howard 23

human 18, 25, 4548, 50, 51, 5357, 6265, 8688, 112, 114, 124126, 128, 130, 131, 142, 156, 165, 167, 175, 178, 179, 189, 192, 193, 196, 197, 204, 205, 211, 234, 235, 238, 248, 253, 259, 266, 270, 271, 275280, 287

human condition 180, 236

human contact 15, 16, 245, 246, 266, 268

human experience 51, 259, 261

non-human 50, 55, 196, 276, 277

post-human 199

humanism 83, 86, 88, 90, 179

Humanities 25, 29, 75

humanity 16, 55, 71, 86, 158, 159

inhumanity 269

humiliation 126, 265

hut 14, 28, 48, 57, 73, 84, 91, 107, 110, 156, 245, 277

hygiene 109

I

I Am Legend 248

Ibsen, Henrik 45, 46, 48, 56

An Enemy of the People 45

iconicity 64, 69, 171, 174, 206, 210, 211, 275

identification 50, 105, 205, 212, 214, 218, 222, 225, 239

over-identification 234

identity 13, 26, 28, 47, 48, 51, 52, 84, 92, 107, 109, 110, 164, 166, 193, 196, 217, 218, 225, 233235, 239, 240, 246, 247, 249, 265, 271, 276, 279, 296

dual identity 233

idem-identity 234, 235, 239, 240

identity formation 46, 294

ipse-identity 234, 235, 239, 240

ideology 15, 17, 66, 72, 79, 114, 219, 246

illegality 263 ← 315 | 316 →

illness 17, 21, 26, 112, 113, 205, 207, 240, 293, 295

imagination 48, 63, 123, 128130, 147, 160, 170, 172, 177, 203, 217, 218, 221224

immanence 180

immigration 15

immortality 64, 65, 6971, 73

imprisonment 15, 16, 108, 126, 207, 217, 219221

self-imprisonment 207

inclusion 17

independence 13, 15, 16, 19, 20, 81, 82, 86, 89, 90, 91, 105, 106, 114, 115, 143, 145, 179, 204, 205, 207, 212, 213, 217, 219, 221, 222, 225, 253, 295

creative independence 102

economic independence 13

individualism 13, 16, 20, 26, 45, 47, 48, 49, 5153, 56, 58, 61, 66, 69, 81, 88, 110, 116, 125, 126, 129, 130, 131, 155158, 160, 163166, 169, 170, 178, 180, 204, 205, 207, 209, 212, 213, 234, 237, 239, 246, 253, 260, 263, 270, 276, 282, 287293, 295, 296

individuation 199, 294

industrialization 15

infantilism 232

ingenuity 125

insight 24, 93, 123126, 128130, 157, 170, 207, 225, 250

integration 173, 253

intellect 20, 79, 82, 86, 88, 8993, 104, 105, 123, 163, 195, 212, 251, 252, 275, 283, 292

interaction 50, 123, 124, 144, 145, 147, 148, 156, 164, 203205, 207, 208, 226, 239, 246, 248, 250, 259, 265, 268, 271, 275, 287, 290, 291, 295, 296

interdependence 197, 204, 205, 208, 212, 234, 295

interdisciplinarity 25, 29

Intermediality Studies 26

internet 26, 73, 259, 261, 270, 282, 293, 295, 296

interpersonal theory of psychiatry 292

interpersonality 155, 163, 205, 235, 248250, 267, 268, 271

intersexuality 101, 102, 105107, 109

intimacy 80, 269, 292

introspection 260

introversion 18, 293

involuntariness 1517, 80, 82, 92, 116, 123, 125, 126, 169, 219, 220, 222, 235, 247, 266

irony 17, 18, 45, 46, 49, 80, 198, 210, 231, 241, 253, 275277, 279, 284

environmental irony 275

Irving, Washington 22

“Rip Van Winkle” 22, 224

isolation 1321, 23, 2527, 29, 47, 49, 55, 61, 69, 7174, 79, 80, 82, 85, 87, 91, 101103, 105110, 112116, 125, 126, 128, 129, 139141, 145, 146, 148, 175, 192, 194, 197, 204, 205, 207, 210, 211, 218, 221, 222, 225, 231, 233, 234, 236, 237, 240, 241, 245, 247, 248, 267, 268, 275, 276, 279, 281283, 288, 289

active isolation 288, 289

mental isolation 110

physical isolation 103, 110

social isolation 25, 140, 289, 290, 295

isolatoe 20, 24

J

Jackson, Francis 145

Jacobs, Elizabeth 220

James, Henry 22 ← 316 | 317 →

Jewett, Sarah Orne 18, 22, 24, 115, 225

“A White Heron” 22, 115, 225

The Country of the Pointed Firs 18, 22, 116

Joan of Arc 22, 115

John the Baptist 236

Johnson, Denis 22

Train Dreams 22

Johnson, Martin Heade 175

journal 275, 278

journey 5254, 63, 127, 211

joy 54, 70, 71, 85, 87, 140, 146, 160163, 171, 174, 176, 213, 278, 290, 291

Juana Maria 22

Julian of Norwich 64

K

Kant, Immanuel 61, 234

Critique of Pure Reason 235

Kaplan, Amy 146

katabasis 50, 51

Kelley, Abby 143145

Kennedy, Jackie 23

Kensett, John F. 27, 130, 131, 137, 175

Sunset on the Sea 130, 131, 137

Kerber, Linda 79

Kerouac, Jack 28, 174

The Dharma Bums 174

Kierkegaard, Søren 56, 247

King Louis XIV 67

Knight, Leonard 73

knowledge 46, 47, 52, 104, 207, 250, 263

Koch, Philip 246, 247

Kraditor, Aileen S. 144

Krakauer, Jon 19, 58

Into the Wild 19, 58

Künstlerroman 102, 217

female Künstlerroman 28, 102

Kushner, Tony 245

L

LaBute, Neil 245

landscape 23, 53, 55, 64, 68, 87, 109, 115, 123125, 127, 130, 131, 160, 172, 175, 177, 193, 231, 237, 250

Lane, Fitz Henry 129, 136

Owl’s Head, Penobscot Bay 129, 136

Lane, Fitzhugh 175

Lange, Jessica 24

language 26, 4557, 156, 172, 181, 198, 234, 235, 237, 241, 282

Larsen, Svend Erik 247, 248

Larson, Reed 288, 292, 296

Latino 219, 220

Lavinia 85, 87, 91, 94

“The Hermitess; or Fair Secluder” 85, 87, 94

Leary, Mark R. 206, 211

LeFort, Dominique 73

legacy 209

Leisering, Walter 25

leisure 53, 89, 91, 162, 189, 191, 262, 290

Lemmons, Kasi 58

The Caveman’s Valentine 58, 250

Lepenies, Wolf 162

letter 26, 80, 86, 112, 127, 141, 144, 145, 179, 193, 195, 203, 206, 248, 269

Levin, Gail 174

Lewis, Cougar Dave 281

Lewis, Jan 79

Lewis, Kevin 170

Lonesome 170

liberation 13, 15, 16, 20, 21, 25, 26, 27, 101, 107, 112, 114, 116, 169, 213, 218, 220, 222, 247, 250, 252, 253

libertinism 80, 84, 86, 92

liberty 13, 16, 27, 81, 88, 162, 207, 253

Liberty Farm 147 ← 317 | 318 →

life 14, 15, 17, 18, 20, 21, 23, 25, 27, 28, 46, 48, 49, 52, 53, 56, 61, 62, 64, 6673, 75, 80, 82, 85, 86, 8893, 101, 102, 105, 108111, 113, 114, 116, 123, 124, 127, 130, 140, 145147, 156164, 166, 169, 171, 178, 179, 188, 189, 191, 192, 203, 206213, 218, 223, 233, 241, 245, 247, 251, 252, 260, 262, 263, 267270, 276, 278280, 283, 294

life extension 61, 62, 67, 69, 72

lifespan 67, 287, 293, 294

social life 54, 64, 80, 87, 164, 165, 248, 250, 252, 253

solitary life 53, 69, 71, 72, 108, 158, 160, 166, 173, 279

life writing 22

lifestyle 17, 24, 26, 29, 62, 64, 6674, 80, 83, 106, 109, 114, 169, 206, 209, 213

naturalist lifestyle 279

liminality 1619, 46, 50, 53, 107, 217, 218, 221, 223, 225, 231, 237, 245, 246, 248251, 253, 267

weaning stage 17

limitation 13, 15, 16, 2427, 4547, 49, 52, 53, 79, 84, 93, 101, 103, 111, 114, 116, 213

Lincoln, Abraham 14

Literary Studies 26, 27, 280

literature 18, 22, 25, 26, 28, 29, 45, 47, 56, 58, 75, 114, 115, 160, 162, 169, 172, 179, 231, 238, 239, 245, 252, 275, 277, 279, 303

advice literature 83, 86

children’s and juvenile literature 22

conduct literature 79, 83, 85

environmental literature 276

Locke, John 62

loneliness 13, 1517, 23, 25, 26, 28, 61, 101, 104, 105, 109, 116, 123, 128, 155, 169, 170180, 191, 194, 197, 198, 208, 222, 233, 235, 241, 247, 254, 266268, 271, 281, 287, 288, 290, 291, 293, 294

urban loneliness 25

loner 15, 58, 62, 66, 73, 203

lonesomeness 15, 26, 28, 169181, 247, 278

Long, Christopher 246

Long, Eugene 178

longevity 27, 61, 62, 6569, 7275

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth 118

Evangeline: A Tale of Acadie 118

Lopez, Barry 282

love 18, 26, 57, 73, 84, 86, 91, 110, 113, 115, 123, 141, 145, 162, 163, 165, 172, 203, 207, 208, 220, 235, 236, 252

Luce, William 28, 203, 209, 210, 213

The Belle of Amherst 28, 203, 209, 210

Lueders, Edward 28, 189, 192, 193, 196

The Clam Lake Papers 28, 189, 193, 194, 196

Luhmann, Maike 294

Luminism 175

Lyman, Theodore 141

Lyons, Deborah 175

M

machismo 219, 220, 225, 226

Macquarrie, John 178

magazine 283

Malamud, Bernard 245

The Tenants 245

Malecki, Wojciech 280

Man vs. Wild 74

Maniac 250

Marchioness de Lambert 27, 8385, 8991, 93, 94

“Advice of a Mother to a Daughter” 89, 94 ← 318 | 319 →

The Fair Solitary 27, 83, 85, 89

The School of Virtue 93

The Works of the Marchioness de Lambert 83

marginalization 221

marriage 26, 57, 7982, 85, 86, 9092, 103, 104, 111, 112, 114, 115, 145, 206, 208, 220, 222

Marris, Emma 223, 224

Martineau, Harriet 144

Marxism 247

masculinity 113, 114

mass media 73

masturbation 68, 236, 237

Mayfield, Ida 15, 24

Maysles, David, and Albert Maysles 23

Grey Gardens 23

McCandless, Christopher 19, 57, 58

McDaniel, W. Caleb 140, 142, 148

Mead, Sydney 179

Media Studies 26

mediation 48, 174, 234, 235

medicine 6569

meditation 27, 54, 80, 85, 107, 123, 124, 161, 173, 270, 293

melancholy 67, 128, 162, 163, 174, 176, 196

Melville, Herman 20, 24

“Bartleby, the Scrivener” 20

memoir 25, 165

prison memoir 23

memory 46, 48, 56, 57, 173, 174, 206, 207, 218, 235

collective memory 46

mental disorder 21, 23, 69, 112, 114, 191, 287, 290

depression 17, 170, 172, 174, 176, 177, 240, 290, 291, 293

mental health 291

neurosis 115

obsessive-compulsive disorder 21

paranoia 270

personality disorder 290

psychopathy 249, 250

schizophrenia 290

sociopathy 246

mentor 17, 110, 250, 253

Merton, Thomas 28, 157159, 163, 166

“Notes for a Philosophy of Solitude” 157

Metropolitan Museum of Art 130

Mexican American 217

Middle Ages 14, 26, 52, 162

Mill, John Stuart 16

Milton, John 123, 129

“Il Penseroso” 123, 129

“L’Allegro” 123

mind 16, 18, 20, 21, 27, 49, 54, 55, 58, 82, 88, 91, 92, 105, 111, 112, 127, 128, 159, 163, 166, 169, 178, 194, 195, 197, 208, 212, 231, 232, 245, 247, 249, 287, 289

peace of mind 160, 161, 163, 277

misanthropy 93, 125, 163

modesty 65

monastery 126

monk 14

Montaigne, Michel de 88, 89, 91, 94, 140, 160

“Of/On Solitude” 88, 140, 160

morality 58, 68, 69, 79, 81, 82, 8587, 89, 92, 102, 110, 112, 126, 130, 139, 141, 143, 167, 197, 220223, 231, 246, 294

Morgan, George 176

“Lonesome Road” 176

Mother’s Day 101

motherhood 79, 82, 89, 92, 93, 111

motivation 156, 288

Mountain Men 23, 73

MTV Unplugged 210

Muir, John 190 ← 319 | 320 →

Mulvey, Laura 237

Murphy, Patrick 197

Murray, Judith Sargent 92, 93

“On the Equality of the Sexes” 92

music 14, 22, 23, 163, 169, 173, 175, 176, 289

blues 170, 176

country music 171, 174177

folk music 177

gospel 176

popular music 26, 170

revival songs 171

mystery 157159, 191, 194

mysticism 52, 157159, 180

myth 4751, 55, 157, 171, 172, 188, 203206, 209, 224, 275

N

Naked and Afraid 74

narcissism 55, 232, 233

Narcissus 47, 48, 51

nation 146

national park 23

national period 126

nature 14, 1620, 2224, 27, 28, 45, 53, 55, 63, 65, 66, 68, 72, 75, 86, 87, 108, 115, 123125, 127131, 160, 162, 163, 170, 171, 173, 175, 188, 189, 192, 196199, 222, 223, 225, 232, 245, 246, 250, 276278, 279, 282, 292, 293

ecology without nature 199

post-nature 198

Nature 23

nature writing 26, 189

Naturmensch 72

neglect 20, 111, 170, 289

neighborhood 173, 220, 221, 223, 251, 278

New Historicism 209

New World 13, 128

newspaper 283

Newton, Sarah Emily 85

“Wise and Foolish Virgins” 85

nineteenth century 15, 24, 27, 28, 66, 99, 101, 103105, 114116, 123127, 131, 146, 170, 171, 175, 188, 203, 204, 207, 209211, 225

long nineteenth century 127

Noble, Marianne 116

Nolan, Christopher 253

The Dark Knight-trilogy 253

Noonan, Michael 279

A Different Drummer 279

North Star 143

nostalgia 173, 174

Novak, Barbara 175

novel 14, 21, 22, 26, 27, 29, 49, 50, 54, 56, 58, 79, 81, 82, 101, 102, 158, 165, 193, 233, 236, 237, 239, 245, 251, 259, 260, 263265, 267271

female novel of development 102

gothic novel 70

novella 27, 83

Noyes, John Humphrey 142, 149

numinousness 175, 177179

nun 80, 111

nutrition 65

O

O’Connor, Flannery 24

O’Dell, Scott 22

Island of the Blue Dolphins 22

Oates, Joyce Carol 245

Zombie 245

obscurity 62, 107

Occupy Wall Street 20

Old Testament 55

Olds, Sharon 245

oneness 158

online 259271

offline 259, 261, 263, 265, 266, 268

ontology 50, 178, 250

opera 14 ← 320 | 321 →

oppression 105, 221, 225

order 64, 66, 145, 157, 166, 172, 235, 239, 246, 250, 253, 263

ostracism 84, 104, 208, 289

otherness 28, 105, 106, 114, 169, 175, 177181, 218, 225, 233, 276

Otto, Rudolf 175, 177179

The Idea of the Holy 177

outcast 23, 49, 51, 53, 105, 114

outlaw 93

outsider 70, 114, 147, 207, 246, 252

Ovid 104

P

Pace, Thom 23, 169

“Maybe” 23, 169

pain 164, 166, 197, 208

painting 14, 18, 2228, 123131, 160, 174, 175

history painting 125

landscape painting 68, 123127, 130, 131

plein-air painting 128, 129

portrait 125

Palmer, Walter Launt 25

panopticon 263

Paracelsus 67

paradox 17, 19, 26, 27, 4547, 51, 52, 54, 5658, 69, 87, 194, 199, 204, 233, 234, 236, 247, 278, 279

cultural paradox 26, 45

literary paradox 26, 45

paradox of substance 187, 189, 190

performative paradox 47

social paradox 247

Parks, Suzan-Lori 245

Parsons, William B. 179

The Enigma of the Oceanic Feeling 179

participation 17, 74, 142, 239, 252, 253, 260, 262, 265, 270, 271, 276

paternalism 218220

pathology 16, 17, 21, 26, 28, 109, 112, 115, 205, 208

psychopathology 288, 290

patriarchy 56, 103, 105, 126, 143, 173, 208, 219221

Paul of Thebes 157

Paz, Octavio 47, 48, 51, 55, 57

The Labyrinth of Solitude 47

peace 70, 163

Peace Convention 142

Pease, Elizabeth 145

Peek, Pat Cary 281

Cougar Dave 281

penance 85, 93, 116

Penn, Sean 19

Into the Wild 19, 58, 250

Pennsylvania Freeman 144

Pennsylvania Hermit 94

perfectionism 142

performance 25, 45, 57, 58, 64, 105, 107, 110, 123, 190, 203, 211, 217, 239

Performance Studies 26

Perkins Institute for the Blind 103, 104

permanence 27, 61, 62, 123125, 221, 222

perseverance 125

personal testimony 283

personality 129, 209

Pester, Friedrich Wilhelm 24

Petrarca, Francesco 53

The Life of Solitude 53

phenomenology 48, 250

philanthropy 70

Phillips, Ann Greene 146, 147

Phillips, Wendell 140, 141, 143, 145147

philosophy 24, 25, 68, 82, 88, 90, 124, 127130, 178, 207, 234, 235, 237, 260, 280, 283

photography 22, 23, 160

Piaget, Jean 292

piety 89, 105, 109, 111 ← 321 | 322 →

Pillsbury, Parker 145

place 14, 15, 19, 26, 56, 57, 89, 109, 123, 130, 193, 195, 196, 204, 245, 282

Plato 104

play 14, 21, 28, 203213, 245

autobiographical play 211, 212

biographical play 203, 205, 209, 211, 212

full-cast play 28, 203, 204, 206

one-actor play 28, 203, 204, 209

one-woman play 203, 210

Pliny the Younger 161

Plutarch 67

Poe, Edgar Allan 22, 233

“The Fall of the House of Usher” 22

poetics 27, 99

poetry 14, 18, 21, 22, 24, 26, 28, 52, 62, 68, 101104, 106, 107, 123, 124, 128, 129, 130, 160162, 165, 170172, 175, 203213, 217, 245

politics 13, 15, 1719, 2527, 45, 63, 79, 81, 88, 91, 99, 127, 139, 140, 142148, 180, 221, 246, 260, 268, 269, 275277, 279, 280, 283

Pontoppidan, Henrik 26, 54, 56

Lucky Per 26, 54

Pope, Alexander 161, 162

“Ode on Solitude” 161

Imitations of Horace 161

popularity 83, 125, 210

posterity 204, 207209

postmodernism 209, 232, 238241

post-organism 199

post-revolutionary period 61, 70, 79, 80, 82, 83, 88, 92, 93, 207

poverty 17, 26

prayer 14, 64, 113, 127, 158, 240

presence 48, 54, 56, 57, 71, 75, 85, 127, 144, 146, 159, 180, 188, 190, 191, 194, 206, 218, 246249, 251, 261, 265, 266, 288

pressure 20, 146, 224, 260, 261, 264, 266269, 271, 283

prison 23, 82, 103, 112, 126, 155, 166, 208, 217

privacy 1418, 26, 29, 49, 81, 92, 106, 109, 125, 140, 147, 195, 212, 235, 246, 247, 253, 254, 259265, 268271, 278, 290

productivity 16, 62, 65, 69, 127, 128, 130, 250, 252, 253

prophet 55, 61, 62

propriety 82, 84, 89, 93, 207, 208

prose 123, 173

prosperity 128

protestantism 83, 86, 87, 170

psychology 25, 26, 28, 29, 50, 72, 103, 109, 164, 203205, 207, 210, 211, 247, 276, 277, 287293, 295, 296

cultural psychology 205

social psychology 204, 205, 211

public 45, 49, 53, 54, 58, 62, 72, 73, 8082, 89, 90, 92, 93, 108, 123, 125, 126, 140, 141, 144, 160, 164, 207, 235, 264, 269, 276

publicity 18, 73

punishment 8387, 90, 92, 123, 126

Puritanism 179

purity 105, 109, 146

pursuit of happiness 27, 61, 62

Pynchon, Thomas 174

The Crying of Lot 49, 174

Q

Quakerism 142

quest 28, 102, 155, 156, 158, 159, 192, 279, 280

quietude 70, 295

R

race 20, 22, 26, 141

Ramsey, Ian 178

rapture 172, 191, 192 ← 322 | 323 →

rationality 84, 8893, 158, 177, 180, 235, 265

reading 49, 56, 57, 79, 90, 104, 110, 124, 129, 130, 160, 162, 169, 175, 211, 236, 240, 252, 266, 267, 293

reality 46, 49, 53, 69, 162, 181, 208, 210, 224, 237, 238, 276

rebellion 115, 223, 269

rebirth 108

recess 90, 91

recluse 1316, 18, 20, 21, 23, 24, 27, 61, 62, 64, 69, 73, 79, 80, 8287, 90, 91, 93, 101, 105, 110112, 115, 116, 156, 158, 170, 203, 206, 211, 222, 245, 246, 249253

African American recluse 22

female recluse 22, 24, 25, 27, 79, 80, 8287, 90, 91, 93, 111113, 115, 116

male recluse 22, 83, 84, 88, 107

natural recluse 246, 248

reclusive artist 28, 111

reclusive celebrity 24

social recluse 250

urban recluse 14, 24, 26, 28, 245, 246, 248253

reclusiveness 13, 1518, 21, 23, 24, 28, 7983, 8590, 92, 93, 101, 102, 107, 111, 114, 115, 157, 169, 203207, 211213, 217219, 221, 223, 225, 226, 245, 246, 248250, 253, 266, 268271

ethnic reclusiveness 28

female reclusiveness 101, 115

political reclusiveness 268

religious reclusiveness 111

urban reclusiveness 15, 248

recognition 47, 84, 106, 190, 195, 235, 240

self-recognition 103

recovery 103, 237, 238, 240, 293

self-recovery 177

recreation 293

recuperation 260, 264, 265

redemption 102, 177, 238

Reed, Austin 23

The Life and the Adventures of a Haunted Convict 23

reflection 13, 15, 47, 48, 53, 58, 88, 90, 93, 126, 169, 172, 173, 204, 209, 212, 218, 219, 221, 235, 253, 260, 283

self-reflection 46, 48, 87, 164, 253, 292

reform 26, 27, 126, 139, 140, 146, 209

refuge 89, 146, 162

reintegration 125, 126, 250

rejection 162

relationship 22, 54, 102, 129, 145, 147, 164, 206208, 210, 264268, 271, 275, 277, 291, 292, 295, 296

dialogic relationship 213

parasocial relationship 206208, 211, 213

relaxation 67, 260, 264, 293

religion 13, 14, 17, 19, 2628, 55, 64, 71, 80, 82, 86, 89, 93, 109, 111, 125, 139, 143, 155160, 171, 174, 175, 177180, 290

civil religion 179

religiosity 89

religious work 125

Religious Studies 26, 177

remorse 164

remoteness 13, 56, 61, 62, 71, 73, 75, 108, 113, 163, 190, 192, 281, 284

renouncement 249

reorientation 84, 222, 223

repentance 141

representation 13, 19, 21, 2426, 28, 47, 52, 53, 54, 64, 82, 83, 85, 88, 146, 209, 211, 213, 222, 233, 245, 246, 248250, 254, 268

repression 28, 217220 ← 323 | 324 →

Republic 16, 79, 83, 88, 92, 145

resilience 125

responsibility 280

restorative practices 177, 180, 260, 290, 292, 293

retirement 1315, 80, 82, 8690, 92, 93, 108, 114, 146, 221, 269, 294

retreat 1416, 18, 19, 23, 2528, 88, 89, 93, 105, 107, 108, 111113, 116, 117, 124, 126, 143, 146, 155, 156, 160167, 187193, 197, 198, 207, 210, 212, 217, 218, 221, 223, 247, 249, 263, 266, 275277, 279, 280, 283, 290

narrative of retreat 28, 190, 194, 199, 245

nature retreat 196

social retreat 25

return 50, 51, 54, 57, 58, 89, 113, 115, 156, 165, 166, 171, 188, 191, 195197, 208, 219, 225, 249, 250, 277

return of the repressed 220

revelation 107, 195

reward 130, 166

Richardson, Samuel 80

Ricoeur, Paul 233235, 239, 240

Oneself as Another 234

The Course of Recognition 235

Robert of Knaresborough 64

Robertson, Stacey M. 149

Roethke, Theodore 171

“She” 172

Rolland, Romain 179

Romanticism 54, 113, 160, 162, 163, 171

Romines, Ann 116

Roorda, Randall 199

“Antinomies of Participation in Literacy and Wilderness” 199

Dramas of Solitude 199

Rorty, Richard 280

“Save the Planet on Your Own Time?” 280

Roth, Henry 26, 56

Call It Sleep 26, 56

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 26, 5355, 57, 162, 180

Reveries of a Solitary Walker 26, 53, 162

routine 129, 156, 163

Rowson, Susanna 80

Rubin, Kenneth 270

rurality 72, 87, 88, 93, 123, 127, 129, 131, 160, 164, 165, 277, 278

Russo, Richard 245

S

sacredness 19, 159

sacrifice 160

sadness 162, 163

sage 61, 249251, 253

saint 61, 64, 71

Saint Anthony 157

Saint Jerome 157

salvation 123, 126

Salvation Mountain 73

Sand, George 104

Sanders, Scott Russell 282

Sargent, John Singer 23, 27, 127, 134

The Hermit 23, 127, 134

Sarton, May 28, 165, 166

Journal of a Solitude 165

Sayre, Robert 160

schedule 156

Schiller, Friedrich 80, 104, 105

“The Celebrated Woman” 104

Schjeldahl, Peter 174

Schoolman, Martha 140

Abolitionist Geographies 140

science 55, 6366, 68, 159, 197, 262, 263, 266, 268, 269, 271, 282, 283, 287

Scorsese, Martin 23

The Aviator 23 ← 324 | 325 →

scrapbook 193

seascape 160

seclusion 1316, 1923, 26, 61, 71, 73, 82, 83, 105107, 110, 111, 114, 160, 204, 206, 207, 209, 213, 217, 245, 266

temporary seclusion 21

second home 14, 28, 160, 187190, 194, 196, 199

sectarianism 170

secularity 14, 6466, 71, 178, 180

seduction 7984, 90, 91, 232

seduction narrative 27, 79, 80, 8284

segregation 20

selfhood 28, 70, 71, 88, 91, 110, 116, 144, 165, 178180, 193, 203206, 208214, 231234, 236, 237, 239241, 247, 276

dialogic selfhood 206, 209, 213

self-denigration 84, 93

self-fulfillment 79

self-improvement 93, 126

self-knowledge 91, 234

self-reliance 16, 109, 125, 253

self-sufficiency 69, 161

Semester in the Wild 29, 275, 276, 279281, 283

Seneca 161

separateness 15, 19, 233, 236, 241

separation 20, 49, 81, 91, 92, 139, 140, 193, 208, 223, 247, 249, 288

serenity 163

serial killer 246, 249

Seven 249

seventeenth century 14

sex 20, 26, 84, 9193, 105, 106, 111, 114, 142, 220, 237

sexual identity 102

Shakespeare, William 104, 106, 242

Hamlet 242

shame 49, 82, 84, 108, 164

short story 19, 26, 109, 115, 217, 222, 225, 234237, 245

Showalter, Elaine 101, 114, 115

shyness 203, 209, 290, 291

Siebert, Charles 28, 189, 192, 196198

Wickerby 28, 189, 192, 196198

silence 46, 50, 54, 55, 70, 85, 87, 107, 124, 129, 159, 165, 171, 176, 194, 232

simplicity 15, 17, 62, 6668, 72, 73, 107, 268, 275

simulacrum 125, 222

singlehood 7983, 9193, 197, 203, 213

Sisyphus 187

sketch 128

slave narrative 20

slavery 13, 20, 70, 139143, 148, 172

Slovic, Scott 279, 280

“Epistemology and Politics in American Nature Writing” 279

“Savoring, Saving, and the Practice of Ecocritical Responsibility” 280

Going Away to Think 280

Slovic, Scott, Swarnalatha Rangarajan, and Vidya Sarveswaran 277

Ecoambiguity, Community, and Development 277

Smith, Sidonie 263

Smith-Rosenberg, Carroll 81

Smoke 250

sociability 16, 58, 80, 81, 123, 127, 130, 156, 167, 194, 237, 295

unsociability 291

social compact 16, 253

social connection 25, 206

social contact 21, 246, 248, 290

social defect 18

social disadvantage 26

social enhancement hypothesis 295, 296 ← 325 | 326 →

social media 17, 26, 28, 259263, 266, 268, 271, 295

Social Media Studies 26

social network 14, 260, 262, 264269, 289, 295, 296

social norms 19, 205, 207, 208, 295

Social Science 155

socialization 294

society 1321, 23, 2628, 46, 51, 53, 54, 57, 58, 65, 6971, 79, 8082, 8487, 89, 9193, 101, 103, 106108, 110112, 114, 116, 117, 123, 125128, 130, 139, 140, 144, 145, 157, 160, 162164, 166, 181, 194, 197, 203206, 210, 212, 217, 222, 224, 232, 236, 238, 246250, 253, 254, 260, 261, 265, 268271, 275, 277279, 281284, 288, 294296

margins of society 69

pathological society 17

society of control 219

Sociology 2527, 166, 179

solace 196, 267, 278

solidarity 45, 253

solipsism 28, 56, 231234, 236, 241, 279

solitariness 1322, 24, 25, 27, 29, 45, 48, 5052, 5457, 61, 64, 6975, 80, 82, 86, 87, 89, 90, 93, 104, 106, 107, 112, 113, 115, 116, 123126, 128130, 155163, 166, 170172, 174, 175, 179, 187, 193, 194, 197, 204, 206, 209211, 213, 220, 233, 237, 263, 268, 270, 275, 277, 278, 281, 288, 293295

solitarization 25

solitary activity 21, 104, 115, 116, 167, 271, 293

solitary book 101, 115, 116

solitude 1329, 4558, 79, 82, 8491, 99, 101, 102, 106109, 111, 114116, 123126, 128131, 140, 155, 157166, 169173, 175, 177, 187, 189191, 193, 194, 196, 198, 199, 205, 211, 212, 217, 218, 220, 225, 226, 231, 237, 241, 245249, 251, 253, 259261, 263, 265, 266, 268, 270, 271, 275278, 282, 284, 287296

authentic solitude 263, 266, 271

deep solitude 28, 155, 156, 160, 163, 164, 166, 167

early solitude 26

emotional solitude 247

inner solitude 107

mediated solitude 48, 50

natural solitude 245247, 250

ontological solitude 50, 247

perceived solitude 288

permanent solitude 125

physical solitude 288

psychological solitude 49, 50

rural solitude 25, 277

seeking solitude 15, 22, 26, 29, 263, 287, 288, 290, 291, 295, 296

social solitude 49, 50

urban solitude 24, 25, 245251, 253, 254

solo performer 204

somnambulism 112

song 14, 22, 23, 28, 72, 169, 172, 176, 177

Soth, Alec 23

Broken Manual 23

soul 18, 20, 53, 54, 107, 112, 114, 116, 126, 127, 171, 177, 208

sound 194, 195

soundlessness 55

space 1416, 19, 25, 26, 28, 47, 49, 79, 82, 8992, 103, 112, 125, 130, 131, 139, 140, 146148, 169, 172, 174, 211, 212, 217, 218, 220, 225, 231, 236, 237, 245250, 252

closed space 19, 22 ← 326 | 327 →

collective space 47

digital space 26

hybrid space 140

liminal space 19, 218, 225, 231, 237

safe space 140, 146

third space 218

speech act 47, 57, 234

speech act theory 47

sphere 8082, 86, 92, 93, 101, 103, 105, 114, 140, 146, 148, 219, 220, 223, 254

domestic sphere 80, 81, 86, 146, 219, 220

female sphere 103

male sphere 103

private sphere 93

public sphere 81, 82, 92, 93, 140, 254

separate spheres 80, 105, 114, 148

spinsterhood 111, 115, 207, 210, 211

spirituality 14, 17, 1820, 2528, 54, 64, 71, 88, 104, 108, 111, 112, 114, 123, 127, 130, 157160, 170, 171, 175, 176, 178, 179, 225

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady 18, 116, 221

“The Solitude of Self” 18, 116, 221

Starkey, David 214

How Red the Fire 214

stasis 218, 222

Stevens, Wallace 171, 193

“Sunday Morning” 171

“Tea at the Palaz of Hoon” 171

stillness 55, 194

Storr, Anthony 164

Strayed, Cheryl 22

Wild 22

stress 291, 293

stress reduction 292, 293

stressor 264

Studies of Affect 26

Studies of Space and Place 26

subjectivity 47, 53, 232, 238, 241

sublimation 20, 111

sexual sublimation 109

sublime 55, 87, 112, 128, 224, 250

submissiveness 105, 219

substance 187, 189, 191, 192, 194, 195, 198, 199

suburb 231, 237, 278

success 187, 190193, 195, 196, 198

suffering 208

surveillance 29, 259, 261263, 265, 269271

public surveillance 17

survival 64, 69, 74, 235

Survivorman 74

Survivorman and Son 74

sustainability 16, 27, 62, 65, 75

sustenance 140, 190192, 278

Swann, Jr., William B. 210

Swedenborg, Emanuel 104, 113

T

Tappan, Arthur 146

Taylor, Barbara 140

Taylor, Jess 281

technology 17, 25, 26, 28, 259263, 266, 268, 270, 271, 289, 296

communication technology 261, 266, 268, 269, 293

technological progress 259261, 263, 266, 268, 269, 271

television 14, 22, 23, 26, 72, 74, 206, 289

reality show 23, 27, 74

temporariness 15, 90, 108, 114, 115, 123125, 127, 128, 131, 177, 221, 253, 264, 282

The Beverly Hillbillies 27, 73

The Brave One 250

The Collector 250

The Equalizer 250

The Fort Fisher Hermit 73 ← 327 | 328 →

The Ladies’ Pocket Library 94

The Liberator 146, 147, 148

The Life and Times of Grizzly Adams 23

The Man Without a Face 250

The Martian 125

The Massachusetts Magazine 85, 94

theology 72, 179

therapy 17, 103, 165, 209, 239, 240, 254

Thompson, George 141, 145, 148

Thoreau, Henry David 1418, 24, 27, 28, 104, 123131, 162, 163, 166, 173, 187191, 193, 194, 196198, 207, 260, 275, 276, 278280, 283

anti-Thoreauvian 198

arch-Thoreauvian 195

post-Thoreauvian 28, 187190, 194196, 198

The Journal 193, 196, 198

The Maine Woods 196

Walden 14, 16, 27, 104, 123, 162, 163, 188194, 196, 275, 276, 278, 279

Walden Pond 14, 104, 123126, 128, 162, 166, 190, 192, 207, 275, 278

Thornber, Karen L. 275, 277279, 281, 283

Ecoambiguity 277, 279

threat 16, 239, 245, 246, 249253, 268, 270

Tichi, Cecilia 175

High Lonesome 175

time 13, 15, 16, 19, 29, 47, 55, 70, 89, 9092, 130, 155, 156, 160, 162, 164, 166, 190, 191, 196, 197, 204, 211, 234, 235, 246, 248, 253, 261, 264266, 268, 281, 287296

Tin Pan Alley 176

Tissot, Samuel 67

Advice to People in General, with Regard to their Health 67

Tompkins, Jane 116

topography 15, 18, 84, 231, 238

town 14, 15, 19, 80, 127, 162, 163

tradition 17, 22, 27, 47, 55, 74, 83, 86, 88, 90, 93, 101, 105, 114, 115, 126, 170172, 176, 178, 180, 207, 208, 215, 217, 219, 223, 245, 247, 253, 279

Transatlantic Studies 24, 26, 29, 68, 140

transcendence 52, 159, 166, 178, 180, 181, 231

Transcendentalism 109, 117

transformation 17, 46, 48, 57, 62, 69, 115, 189, 190, 194, 221, 222, 224, 226, 249, 250, 252, 253, 270

transgression 92, 203, 218, 219, 222, 280

transition 52, 92, 213, 218, 225

transparency 260, 262265, 269, 271

trauma 164, 241, 249

travel narrative 63, 211

Turkle, Sherry 261

Turner, Frederick Jackson 13

Turner, Victor 17, 223, 248

The Forest of Symbols 248

Twain, Mark 28, 172

Huckleberry Finn 172

twentieth century 27, 28, 56, 62, 72, 124, 174, 177, 189, 205, 232

twenty-first century 14, 28, 56, 62, 205, 212, 276, 283

U

Underground Railroad 147

unemployment 17, 26

unworldliness 22

utopia 262 ← 328 | 329 →

V

Villard, Henry 144

violence 53, 65, 140144, 146, 219, 220, 246

visionary 62, 63

visual culture 22, 26

vitality 73

vocation 14, 111, 114, 157159, 163, 166

void 50, 55, 58, 89

voluntariness 16, 17, 55, 56, 79, 82, 83, 86, 87, 90, 92, 114, 116, 123, 125, 128, 131, 141, 142, 155, 157, 158, 169, 209, 213, 221, 248, 250, 260, 263, 264, 266, 269, 290, 292, 295

Voorhis, Robert 20, 27, 7072, 74

Life and Adventures of Robert, the Hermit of Massachusetts 20, 27

voyeurism 74

W

WALDEN 18

walking 53, 63, 66, 127, 130, 162, 171, 187, 190, 194, 195

Wallace, David Foster 28, 231241

“A Supposedly Fun Thing I’ll Never Do Again” 232

“Forever Overhead” 241

“Good Old Neon” 235

“Incarnations of Burned Children” 232

“Lyndon” 236

“The Depressed Person” 240

“Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way” 237, 240

A Supposedly Fun Thing I’ll Never Do Again 241

Girl With Curious Hair 236

Infinite Jest 231, 232, 236239, 241

Oblivion 235

The Broom of the System 232, 233, 236, 241

The Pale King 237, 238, 240, 241

Waller, Frank 125, 130, 133

Interior View of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 125, 133

Wallis, George 67

The Art of Preventing Diseases, and Restoring Health 67

Walters, Ronald G. 140, 143

“The Boundaries of Abolitionism” 140

wandering 19, 51, 63, 65, 124, 127130, 173, 196, 236, 240

Ware, Chris 245

Jimmy Corrigan 245

Warren, Andrew 239, 241

Watson, Julia 263

Weaver, Charles P. 22

Weber, Max 156, 157

Weil, Simone 159

well-being 145, 203, 287, 290294, 296

Welty, Eudora 22

“At The Landing” 22

Weyler, Karen A. 87, 91

Wharton, Edith 22, 24

“The Hermit and the Wild Woman” 22

White, E.B. 278

White, Emily 22

Lonely 22

Whitman, Walt 28, 171

“A Song of Joys” 171

“From Far Dakota’s Canons” 171

“Proud Music of the Storm” 171

“Recorders Ages Hence” 171

Wild 22, 250

Wilder, Laura Ingalls 173

Little House on the Prairie 173

wilderness 14, 19, 23, 26, 28, 29, 55, 61, 74, 107, 108, 115, 123, 127, 128, 156, 199, 245, 247, 248, 275, 276, 279281, 283, 284, 286 ← 329 | 330 →

Williams, Gary 113, 116

Williams, Hank 28, 175177

Williams, Terry Tempest 282

When Women Were Birds 282

Willich, A.F.M. 67

Lectures on Diet and Regimen 67

Wilson, Amos 27, 7072, 74, 94

The Sweets of Solitude! 27, 71

Wilson, Timothy 289

wisdom 17, 61, 62, 64, 85, 86, 107, 109, 123, 167, 237, 240, 249

withdrawal 1421, 23, 2529, 49, 5658, 70, 82, 87, 88, 90, 93, 106108, 114, 116, 117, 123, 139, 140, 142, 155157, 162165, 203, 206, 212, 245, 246, 248, 253, 259, 260, 263, 268270, 275, 288291

Witherspoon, Reese 22

Wittgenstein, Ludwig 155, 233, 236, 237

Wolfe, Thomas 173

Look Homeward, Angel 173

womanhood 22, 25, 79, 80, 82, 8893, 101, 103106, 110117, 142, 207, 219, 220, 221

republican womanhood 79, 80, 82, 92

true womanhood 105, 114

Women’s Studies 26

women’s writing 27, 101, 115, 116

Wood, Gillen D’Arcy 75

Woolf, Virginia 212, 220

Wordsworth, William 188

world 14, 17, 19, 46, 48, 51, 5355, 57, 58, 63, 71, 80, 81, 84, 85, 8791, 93, 102, 105, 108, 112, 140, 142144, 146148, 158, 166, 190, 191, 208, 210, 212, 221223, 225, 231, 247, 248, 251, 254, 262, 266, 277, 278, 280, 295

World War I 188, 189

World’s Anti-Slavery Convention 146

worship 180

Wright, Doug 214

I Am My Own Wife 214

Wright, Doug, Scott Frankel, and Michael Korie 23

Grey Gardens 23

Wright, James 172

“A Blessing” 172

writing 21, 29, 54, 71, 102104, 114116, 130, 155, 158, 163, 166, 176, 190196, 203, 211213, 218, 221, 231, 232, 236, 251, 252, 275, 276, 279, 280, 282, 283, 293

writing cure 220, 221

Y

Yacovone, Donald 145

Z

Zemeckis, Robert 23

Cast Away 23, 125, 250

Zen-Buddhism 47

Zimmermann, Johann Georg 13

Solitude Considered with Respect to Its Influence Upon the Mind and the Heart 13