Show Less
Open access

The Panentheism of Karl Christian Friedrich Krause (1781-1832)

From Transcendental Philosophy to Metaphysics

Series:

Benedikt Paul Göcke

The book provides the first analysis of Karl Christian Friedrich Krause’s system of philosophy and his panentheism in English. Karl Christian Friedrich Krause has bequeathed to us a system of philosophy which is little recognised in contemporary philosophy. This is both surprising and unfortunate, because Krause’s philosophical system has much to offer: Through transcendental reflection on the nature of the human, Krause understands God as the one infinite and unconditioned reality, and the ultimate necessary condition of knowledge. God makes humanity, nature, and reason ultimately comprehensible as the essential categories of the divine Essence. God is thus the single, primary, object of science that is already logically presupposed even before His discovery. Science presupposes theology, and theology is best read as panentheism.

Show Summary Details

← 250 | 251 →

Index

A

Absolute, the 96, 115, 116, 118, 122, 123, 130, 177, 181, 182, 195, 228230

activity 48, 74, 91, 146, 147, 157, 160, 181, 185, 187, 189192, 203, 210

– intellectual 48, 160, 185, 189, 190, 192

– pure 146

analytical-ascending part of science, see science

argument analysis 159

astrological 20

atheism 163

awareness of God 91

B

Being (Sein) 13, 68, 96, 108110, 113, 131, 172, 174, 176

– primordial being 108, 110, 113, 176

– being purely itself 102

– divine being 33, 35, 41, 43, 44, 102, 106, 109111, 117, 118, 120, 127, 128, 132, 134, 171, 174, 175

– being-known of itself 152

– being-in-itself 152

– beingness 88, 108, 111, 129, 131, 133

– being-thereness 108

belief 16, 46, 91, 94

belief, religious 91

Bible, the 19, 169

biology 33, 34, 196198

body 37, 38, 43, 56, 57, 6980, 119, 121, 145, 146, 199, 224, 230

C

Cambridge School of Analysis 155, 156

category:

– formal 36, 37, 40, 41, 60, 6266, 68, 69, 71, 72, 78, 87, 89, 99, 100, 104108, 112, 126, 129, 131, 183, 194

– material 36, 37, 40, 41, 42, 60, 6366, 68, 69, 7173, 75, 77, 86, 87, 89, 99, 100102, 104, 106111, 126, 129, 131, 134, 180, 183, 194

– material-formal 64, 66, 68, 88, 106, 131

– logical-formal 83

circle 136, 137

comprehension 37, 38, 41, 6366, 68, 72, 88, 105107, 115, 116, 129, 131, 146, 180

conceptual analysis 158, 159

conditionality 102

contra-essentiality 113, 118, 126

correspondence-theoretical truth 39

D

denial 114, 115, 169, 172, 174, 176, 180, 190, 202, 220

deism 168, 216

deity 164

difference 35, 37, 40, 41, 43, 44, 58, 65, 66, 68, 71, 73, 79, 81, 86, 100, 101, 104, 107, 109, 110, 112114, 116, 117, 119, 121, 122, 127, 129, 131, 136, 172, 180, 181, 193, 217

difference in unity 35, 73

directedness 37, 38, 41, 63, 64, 66, 68, 72, 87, 88, 105107, 115, 116, 129, 131, 132, 180

directedness-comprehension-unity 37, 64, 106

diversity 47, 48, 72

divine properties 129, 130, 132, 134, 135

divine consciousness 33

division 88

divisiveness 88

Dresden Circle 22

Dresden Masons 27

dualism 157, 168, 208, 228

E

Eastern thought 25, 26

ego:

– ego as such 3638, 42, 55, 60, 62, 64, 65, 68, 69, 7174, 77, 80, 103, 105, 129

– ego in itself 3538, 42, 43, 55, 60, 69, 70, 7275, 79, 80, 119

– fundamental intuition of the ego 35, 36, 39, 55, 5761, 6367, 69, 80, 83, 84, 86, 90, 95, 97, 99, 101, 105, 129, 146, 147

– transcendental constitution of the ego 13, 14, 33, 3638, 55, 5761, 6367, 69, 71, 73, 74, 84, 101, 105, 107, 119, 129, 136, 151

– formal categories of the ego 36, 37, 62, 6466, 68, 73, 75

– material categories of the ego 60, 6466, 68, 73, 75

empirical 13, 147, 150153, 160, 169, 203205, 208, 212, 213, 219, 220, 227230

entity 33, 36, 37, 40, 63, 77, 89, 90, 93, 101, 110, 119, 129, 136, 162, 171, 175, 179, 181, 195, 199, 209, 213, 215, 216, 220, 221, 224

epistemological 36, 52, 57, 61, 83, 95, 96, 167, 187, 193, 196, 197, 203, 212, 229, 230

error 49, 81, 83, 125, 149, 158, 179, 194

Essence 16, 86, 9094, 96, 97, 99111, 113118, 121123, 125, 126, 129134, 137, 141, 147, 151, 173, 180, 181, 183, 198, 229

– Essence as self-essential 88

– “fixed” Essence (gesetztes Wesen) 105

– “fixing” Essence (satziges Wesen) 195

essence 13, 16, 3437, 4042, 47, 48, 51, 52, 58, 6064, 67, 69, 7277, 79, 8189, 9295, 99104, 107110, 113, 115, 117120, 122, 123, 125127, 129, 130, 134, 136, 137, 145147, 149151, 157, 162, 165, 172174, 177, 178, 180, 182, 183, 198, 202, 204, 213, 219, 221, 228, 229, 233, 234

– divine essence 198, 123, 134

essentiality, essentialities 13, 3641, 43, 44, 48, 58, 6065, 6769, 76, 77, 80, 8489, 96, 100111, 113118, 120123, 125127, 129137, 173, 174, 176181, 183, 195

essential-unity of essence 88

explanandum 166, 173, 174

explanans 166, 173, 174

external objects 56, 67, 88

F

faith 94, 124, 169

feeling 27, 147, 225

finite 13, 33, 39, 40, 43, 44, 4850, 52, 54, 58, 7678, 81, 8493, 95, 96, 99, 101, 109, 110, 113, 119, 122126, 129, 130, 133, 136, 137, 164, 165, 175, 178183, 193, 195, 228, 233

formal categories, see categories

freedom 78, 135, 136, 181, 182, 200

– primordial freedom 181

Freemasons, the 15, 22, 24

G

glory 16

God 11, 13, 15, 16, 27, 28, 3336, 3845, 49, 5153-55, 60, 65, 67, 79, 81, 83, 84, 86, 8997, 99111, 113127, 130135, 137, 147, 149, 151, 152, 155, 161183, 192195, 197202, 204, 216, 233

Godhood 100

grain of sand 87, 88

ground:

– ultimate ground 13, 33, 38, 39, 47, 48, 81, 83, 85, 89, 95, 127, 129, 145153, 162169, 171, 173176, 195, 200, 228

– ground of the world 44, 135, 148, 149, 151, 162169, 173176, 195

ground element 132

grounding 33, 85, 89, 93, 179, 200, 220

– metaphysical grounding 33, 85, 89, 200

H

hermeneutic 149, 167, 201

holism 33, 185, 196198, 200, 230

holiness 164

holy 27, 54, 163, 164

human being 35, 38, 50, 53, 54, 56, 7375, 78, 80, 92, 119121, 135, 136, 200, 203, 204, 209, 214

humanity 15, 22, 29, 43, 47, 50, 55, 74, 7880, 8486, 91, 94, 99, 119123, 125129, 133135, 138, 177, 180, 197, 214, 234

I

idealism 146, 153, 168, 208

imagination 49, 78, 121

incommunicable 58, 67

Indian philosophy, see philosophy

infinite 48, 54, 59, 7678, 81, 85, 86, 8890, 9299, 102, 103, 109111, 114, 119, 120, 122, 123, 125, 130134, 137, 147, 151, 164, 166, 173, 175, 176, 179183, 193195, 199, 203, 228, 233

instantiation 165, 166

internal 59, 76, 198, 205

intrinsic 37, 44, 113, 115, 121, 127129, 160, 164, 172, 176, 181, 182, 210, 211, 213, 215, 218221, 225229

intuited 58, 59, 66, 67, 69, 101, 108, 110, 114, 115, 120, 135, 149, 173, 202, 231

intuiting 58, 108

intuition:

– fundamental intuition 35, 36, 3941, 44, 45, 51, 53, 55, 5761, 6367, 69, 7981, 83, 84, 86, 8991, 94, 95, 97, 99103, 105108, 110, 111, 113, 121, 127, 129, 134, 145147, 149152, 194, 201

– intellectual intuition 49, 51, 56, 193, 196, 201203, 205

– intuition of God 35, 38, 40, 41, 44, 45, 5155, 60, 65, 79, 81, 89, 91, 92, 9497, 99103, 105108, 110, 111, 113, 114, 118, 121, 127, 147, 149, 151, 152, 193, 194, 200, 202

– fundamental intuition of God 40, 41, 44, 45, 55, 60, 65, 79, 81, 89, 91, 94, 95, 97, 99103, 105108, 110, 111, 113, 121, 127, 147, 149, 151, 152, 194

J

justification 14, 33, 34, 91, 157, 165167, 169, 171, 172, 201, 226, 228, 234

– ultimate justification 33, 201

K

knower, the 81, 82, 90, 94

knowing 39, 49, 51, 55, 81, 82, 89, 95, 126, 127, 129, 130, 145, 147, 178, 183

knowing subject 35, 39, 42, 55, 58, 67, 81, 83, 90, 9597

knowledge:

– certain 35, 36, 50, 51, 53, 5557, 67, 83, 96, 110, 221, 228

– conceptual 50, 57, 94, 95, 97

– human 39, 45, 82, 95, 96

– immediate 55, 67

– non-sensory 50, 84, 89, 90

– putative 46

– sensory 4951, 57, 84, 89, 90, 95

– subjective 83

known object 39, 42, 58, 67, 8183, 9597

known, the 81, 82, 89, 90, 130, 173

L

linguistic turn 160

logical 46, 52, 73, 83, 117, 133, 155, 156, 158160, 179, 186, 188, 201, 213, 215, 217

– Logical Positivism 155, 156

– logical positivists 156

logics 46

– doxastic 46

– epistemic 46

– modal 46

M

manifestation 146, 147, 150, 151, 153, 208

manifoldness 47, 72

mankind 29, 47, 135, 197

Masonic 15, 22, 24, 27

Masons, the 2224, 27

material categories, see categories

materialistic 160

mathematics 18, 20, 21, 23, 175, 192, 204

– pure 20, 21

members (Glieder) 46, 76, 114, 124, 132, 133, 148, 149

– members’ structure (Gliedbau) 46

metaphysical 13, 33, 37, 52, 69, 83, 85, 89, 130, 155, 162, 164, 166, 169, 193, 197, 200, 203, 204, 207, 209, 211, 216, 218, 220, 224, 226230

metaphysics 13, 20, 33, 34, 39, 124, 125, 166, 215

mind 14, 33, 35, 37, 38, 43, 44, 49, 5154, 56, 57, 66, 6980, 86, 92, 93, 99, 108, 109, 119, 120, 129, 130, 133, 141, 155, 157, 161, 166, 167, 189, 193, 203, 207, 214, 219, 224, 226, 228, 229, 234

– philosophy of mind 14, 33, 44, 141, 155, 207, 226, 228, 229

mysticism 25

N

nature 12, 27, 38, 43, 57, 69, 7580, 8386, 88, 109, 118123, 125129, 134, 135, 146, 151, 166, 170, 171, 176180, 200, 231

necessity 46, 69, 76, 137, 182, 216, 229, 231

negation 88, 102, 114, 115, 172, 174, 175

non-conceptual 95, 97

notion 149

O

omniscience 46

– deductive omniscience 46

– logical omniscience 46

onto-epistemological 146

ontological 35, 72, 96, 119, 134, 162, 163, 171, 174, 175, 187, 189, 196198, 203, 207212, 214, 218221, 223, 228, 230, 231

opposition 38, 42, 43, 51, 62, 64, 67, 80, 83, 95, 111, 113123, 127, 129, 130, 135, 148, 172, 174, 176, 177, 181, 195

organic system 23, 33, 4548, 51, 5355, 59, 86, 100102, 122, 129, 130, 132, 134, 136138, 150, 155, 185, 196198, 205, 234

organic system of science, see science

original-unity-of-positivity 64, 65, 68, 106, 110, 115, 129

original-unity-of-essentiality 37, 65, 68, 104, 110, 115, 129, 131, 135

original-unity-of-being 66, 68, 110

Orwesen 16, 34, 40, 43, 44, 49, 51, 5355, 81, 86, 89, 94, 99101, 103, 104, 106, 110, 111, 114123, 125130, 135137, 147, 172, 173, 175177, 180183, 203, 229, 231

Oupnekhat, see the Upanishads

P

panentheism 11, 13, 14, 33, 35, 43, 44, 99, 113, 121, 122, 124, 126, 127, 136, 137, 141, 144, 155, 171173, 175183, 193, 195, 200, 207, 226, 228231, 233, 234

panentheistic 13, 14, 40, 122, 127, 141, 142, 144, 148, 150, 151, 172, 173, 175, 176, 178, 180, 192, 196, 199, 200, 204, 205, 226, 228230, 234

– panentheistic paradox 176

panpsychism 33, 155, 207209, 214, 215, 222, 224, 226231

panpsychistic 33, 215, 229

perfect-to-the-highest-degree-possible 163, 164, 166, 168

phenomenology 35, 36, 40, 41, 52, 55, 60, 63, 66, 68, 69, 70, 72, 86, 88, 89, 97, 99

– transcendental phenomenology 35, 36, 40, 41, 52, 55, 60, 63, 66, 68, 69, 70, 72, 86, 88, 89, 97, 99

philosophical thesis 156, 158160, 168

– acceptability of 156, 158

– genesis of 156, 158

– validity of 156, 159, 160

philosophy:

– Anglo-Saxon 11, 33

– analytic 141, 155162, 171, 172

– East Asian 24

– Indian 24, 26, 141144, 147, 148

– natural 20, 21

– non-analytic 160

– of mind, see mind

– of religion 14, 33, 44, 126, 141, 155, 161, 162, 171, 172, 183

– of science, see science

– system of philosophy 13, 14, 33, 36, 66, 113, 141144, 146148, 150, 152, 153, 155, 182, 183, 192194, 200, 202, 205, 207, 234

– transcendental 13, 21

physicalism 207, 208, 228

plurality 47, 177

positivity 6365, 68, 87, 88, 106108, 110, 111, 115, 129, 131, 133, 172

possibility of science 45, 46, 51, 79, 187, 188, 213

pre-theoretical experience 186, 187, 190, 192, 195, 203, 204

principle:

– principle of everything 84, 99

– principle of science, see science

– principle of sufficient reason, see reason

– ultimate principle 34, 3941, 43, 47, 53, 84, 8991, 96, 97, 99, 100, 109, 110, 129, 136, 148151, 155, 162, 164, 166, 173, 175, 200

propositional systematization 186, 187, 189, 203

properties:

– mental 207219, 222224

– non-mental 207

– physical 207209, 211218

– non-physical 207

– fundamental 208

pseudo-science 185, 190

R

reason 13, 38, 39, 43, 4850, 54, 57, 58, 67, 69, 72, 73, 75, 7781, 8386, 88, 9194, 98, 101, 109, 118129, 134137, 148150, 167170, 176, 177, 180, 193, 194, 203, 227, 231

– reason of the reason (Grund des Satzes) 93

– principle of sufficient reason (Satz des Grundes) 38, 39, 48, 54, 57, 58, 84, 85, 93, 94, 101, 109, 120, 148150, 227

reductionism 185, 196198, 200, 205

representation 25, 71, 81, 95, 141, 142, 144147, 149, 152, 215, 227

revelation of God 91

S

Sanskrit 26, 144

science:

– analytical-ascending part of science 35, 36, 38, 40, 45, 5153, 55, 6770, 79, 86, 90, 94, 96, 99, 101, 109, 119, 120, 131, 149, 150, 197

– synthetical-descending part of science 35, 40, 45, 53, 65, 99, 101, 113, 119121, 125, 131, 149, 150, 173, 194, 195, 201

– principle of science 14, 3436, 3941, 45, 4755, 59, 60, 65, 81, 86, 8993, 95, 97, 99103, 105107, 109, 110, 113, 114, 116, 119, 121, 122, 127, 129133, 136, 137, 145, 147, 150, 151, 172, 173, 183, 193, 194, 197, 198, 200, 203

– structure of science 14, 45, 130, 133, 134, 143, 198, 234

– system of science 23, 24, 3336, 40, 4449, 51, 53, 54, 59, 86, 94, 100, 122, 129, 130, 132138, 145, 148150, 173, 185, 196201, 205, 226, 227, 234

– organic system of science 23, 46, 47, 53, 59, 86, 100, 122, 129, 130, 132, 136138, 150, 185, 196, 197, 205, 234

– natural science 23, 134, 135, 137, 158, 169, 170, 185, 190, 204, 215, 226

– science of reason 135137

– science of human beings 135

– principal sciences 134138

– philosophy of science 14, 33, 40, 44, 122, 141, 148, 155, 185, 192, 196, 197, 199, 200, 203, 205, 206

– special sciences 47, 134138, 196198

scientific thought 34, 53, 54

scientificity 185, 189, 190, 192, 204

self-consciousness 36, 58, 105, 173, 182

self-experience 58

selfhood 37, 38, 4143, 61, 62, 64, 66, 68, 72, 88, 101104, 106, 107, 111, 115, 116, 118121, 126, 127, 129, 131, 132, 134136, 138, 176, 180

selfhood-wholeness-unity 37, 62, 68, 103, 111, 120, 132, 134

self-observation 53, 70, 72, 87, 146, 149152, 228

self-observing 96

self-perceptive 96

self-reference 58

self-same 3538, 42, 58, 61, 62, 64, 7073, 7577, 82, 8789, 94, 95, 101, 103, 104, 107, 108, 111, 114, 117, 122, 123, 126, 129, 130, 147, 180

self-sufficiency 39, 42

source of knowledge 49

– sensory source of knowledge 49

– non-sensory source of knowledge 49

spirit 15, 52, 54, 58, 79, 85, 92, 135, 137, 143, 227

subject 35, 39, 42, 51, 52, 55, 58, 62, 67, 69, 8183, 90, 9498, 122, 124, 130, 145, 149, 202, 210, 211, 213, 214, 222225, 227230

– discriminating subject 82

– subject of experience 210, 211, 213, 214, 222225, 229, 230

substance dualism 157

sufficient reason, see principle of sufficient reason

super-sensory 95

synthetical-descending part of science, see science

system of knowledge 4548, 54, 59, 134, 136

System of Science, see science

systematic 34, 46, 81, 132, 141, 147, 149, 155, 167, 191, 199, 201, 203, 205, 207, 227

T

theology 11, 18, 124, 125, 135, 168, 169, 190, 206

– confessional theology 168, 169, 190

– philosophical theology 135, 137

– scientific theology 190

theism 11, 126, 171, 176, 177, 180, 181, 199, 228

theistic emergentism 171

theory 12, 13, 34, 35, 46, 82, 91, 155, 158, 166, 167, 171, 185, 187195, 198, 200, 203205, 207, 211, 212, 215, 219, 220, 224, 226228

– all-embracing philosophical theory of everything 194

– Darwin’s theory of evolution 171

– Grand Unified Theory 198

– metaphysical theory 13, 155, 166, 207, 224, 227, 228

– physical theory 189, 211, 212, 219

– scientific theory 187, 189, 191193, 195, 203205

– theory of science 34, 35, 185, 198, 200, 205

thesis specification 159

transcendent 13, 39, 83, 86, 96, 99, 113, 137, 170, 175, 229

transcendental 13, 21, 33, 3541, 52, 55, 5774, 76, 81, 83, 84, 86, 88, 89, 96, 97, 99, 101, 103, 105, 107, 113, 119, 129131, 136, 137, 148, 151, 162, 187, 193195, 201, 207, 226, 228230

Trusted Brother 22

truth 35, 39, 47, 50, 54, 55, 57, 69, 8183, 90, 9496, 136, 156, 157159, 161, 169, 173, 186, 188

U

ultimate ground, see ground

ultimate principle, see principle

uncaused cause 166

unconditionality 101103, 107, 111, 120, 123, 125, 135

unconditioned 13, 36, 38, 39, 48, 50, 54, 59, 86, 8890, 9296, 98, 99, 101103, 109111, 115, 120, 121, 125, 130, 135, 136, 151, 173, 175, 176, 180, 182, 193, 195, 203, 234

unconditionedness 102

understanding 12, 13, 49, 50, 55, 72, 98, 130, 148, 165, 167, 190, 194

unification 41, 50, 65, 79, 83, 88, 109, 119, 135, 198

unity in difference 35, 41, 73, 109, 117, 121

unity-of-difference (Verhaltseinheit) 65, 66, 68, 71, 109, 110

unity of unity and difference 41, 44, 66, 73, 86, 100, 107, 110, 113, 114, 119, 122, 127, 129, 131, 193

unity-of-determination (Gehaltseinheit) 65, 66, 68, 71

unity-of-determination-and-difference 109

Unity of Mankind 29

unmoved mover 166

Upanishads, the 26, 143, 144

Urwesen 43, 44, 117119, 121123, 127129, 134, 135, 138, 172, 175177, 181, 182

V

Vienna Circle 155, 156

W

Wesenleben 16

whole 3335, 37, 38, 40, 41, 4345, 5862, 6468

wholeness (Ganzheit) 37, 38, 4143, 61, 62, 65, 66, 68, 72, 88, 101104, 106108, 111, 115, 116, 118121, 126, 127, 129, 131, 132, 134, 135, 138, 176, 180

will 25, 35, 69, 76, 141, 142, 144147, 149, 151153

wisdom 144, 151

worthy of worship 163166, 168, 169, 172