Agriculture represents a basic economic sector for Romanian economy with major implication on a large part of inland population. The accession to the EU has imposed major changes to the Romanian agricultural sector to achieve better outcomes and to adapt to the new economic performance criteria. The book represents a pertinent analysis regarding the evolution of the Romanian agricultural sector and emphasis the need for optimization of the agricultural production structures. Valuing the inland agricultural potential involves designing well competitive production structures which should better combining all the productions factors existing in the rural areas and communities. The book contains five alternatives in designing the agricultural production structures.