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Migration and the Contemporary Mediterranean

Shifting Cultures in Twenty-First-Century Italy and Beyond

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Edited By Claudia Gualtieri

This collection of essays presents a study of migration cultures in the contemporary Mediterranean with a particular focus on Italy as a point of migratory convergence and pressure. It investigates different experiences of, and responses to, sea crossings, borders and checkpoints, cultural proximity and distance, race, ethnicity and memory, along with creative responses to the same. In dialogic and complementary interaction, the essays explore violence centring on race as the major determining factor. The book further submits that the interrogation of racialized categories represents different kinds of critical response and resistance, which involve both political struggle and day-to-day survival and coexistence. Following the praxis of cultural and postcolonial studies, the essays focus on the present but draw indispensable insight from past connections and heritage as well as offering prognoses for the future. The ambitious aim of this collection is to identify some useful lines of thought and action that could help us to think outside intricacy, isolation and defensiveness, which characterize most of the public official reactions to migration today.

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11 Migration from the Horn of Africa: Rethinking space and time (Massimo Zaccaria)

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MASSIMO ZACCARIA

11 Migration from the Horn of Africa: Rethinking space and time

ABSTRACT

The prevailing approach to migration originating from the African Horn towards Europe has emphasized the phenomenon in a time frame that does not exceed a little more than a decade. However, the history of migration offers an understanding of human mobility by providing a model of continuity and change over time. A longer time frame of analysis questions the approach that has almost exclusively focused on the south-north route. This chapter examines migration originating from the Horn of Africa towards the Arabian Peninsula. It is a fact that, in parallel to the European route, a significant number of migrants from the Horn of Africa choose the Middle East as a destination. The European route and the Gulf route are not mutually exclusive. In many cases, migrants combine the opportunities offered by the two routes, so that their journey to Europe frequently takes a detour to the Gulf region. Economically, remittances from the Horn of Africa migrants in Europe may be invested in import-export-related activities between the Gulf States and the countries of origin. The aim of this chapter is to provide an analytical framework to demonstrate how different migration routes have originated from the Horn of Africa and their consequences for the sending and receiving areas. Special emphasis is placed on gender, because of the high incidence of women from the Horn of Africa employed in the...

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