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Science Fiction Literature in East Germany

Series:

Sonja Fritzsche

East German science fiction enabled its authors to create a subversive space in another time and place. One of the country’s most popular genres, it outlined futures that often went beyond the party’s official version. Many utopian stories provided a corrective vision, intended to preserve and improve upon East German communism. This study is an introduction to East German science fiction. The book begins with a chapter on German science fiction before 1949. It then spans the entire existence of the country (1949-1990) and outlines key topics essential to understanding the genre: popular literature, socialist realism, censorship, fandom, and international science fiction. An in-depth discussion addresses notions of high and low literature, elements of the fantastic and utopia as critical narrative strategies, ideology and realism in East German literature, gender, and the relation between literature and science. Through a close textual analysis of three science fiction novels, the author expands East German literary history to include science fiction as a valuable source for developing a multi-faceted understanding of the country’s short history. Finally, an epilogue notes new titles and developments since the fall of the Berlin Wall.
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Index

Absurd, The 197

Academy of the Arts (Akademie der Künste) 67

Adorno, Theodor 2021

Adventure Novel 1415, 19, 29, 7980, 92, 112, 115, 138, 177

Agde, Günter 116

Akermann, Anton 21

Albrecht, Richard 17

Aldiss, Brian 116, 175, 182, 282

Alien Contact 282

Althusser, Louis 251

American Occupational Zone 53

Amis, Kingsley 228

Amnuel, Pavel 244

Andymon (Angela and Karlheinz Steinmüller) 229, 231, 240242, 245247, 249250, 268

Andymon Science Fiction Fan Club 170, 184, 190, 193, 221, 223224, 240

Antczak, Janice 29

Apocalypse 237, 239, 247, 271275

Armitt, Lucie 24, 3233, 209, 211

Asimov, Isaac 174, 177, 243

Asteroid Hunters (Carlos Rasch) 112

Aufbau Verlag 51, 56

Bästel, W. 9697

Bagemühl, Arthur 75, 8485

Bakhtin, Mikhail 209

Barker, Adele Marie 22, 181

Bathrick, David 20, 2223, 3233, 70, 73, 132, 165166, 181, 280

Bauer, Adolf 105

Bebel, August 153

Becher, Johannes R. 4546, 49, 51, 58, 60, 7677

Beissel, Rudolf 48

Bellamy, Edward 55, 73

Belyayev, Sergei 5354

Benjamin, Walter 2021

Bennett, Tony 21, 189190

Berger, Axel 53

Berghahn, Klaus 249

Berlin Wall 26, 103, 109, 115, 219, 234

   Fall of 13, 35, 242, 260, 274, 281

Bibliothekar 74, 82

Biermann, Wolf 178179, 198, 225, 233

Bilenkin 103

Bitterfeld Path 101, 110, 182, 255

   Second Bitterfeld Conference 115, 218

Bloch, Ernst 31, 7173, 106, 108, 118, 121, 204, 253

Blume, Mikaele 19, 161, 221

Blunk, Harry 147

Böhm, Karl 99, 103, 145

Both, Wolfgang 20, 80, 170, 183, 186, 223225

Bradbury, Ray 175, 177

Bradley, Marion Zimmer 244

Brandis, Eugeni 108, 121123

Brandis, Mark 182

Branstner, Gerhard 27, 118, 126128, 171, 182, 208209

Braun, Günter 190

Braun, Johanna 146

––, Johanna and Günter 16, 28, 34, 37, 128, 144, 160, 163, 169, 178179, 189, 192, 196199, 240, 242243, 279280, 282283

   Secret Police Surveillance of 192193 ← 321 | 322

   See Uncanny Manifestations on Omega XI

Braun, Sarah 155

Braun, Wernher von 137

Braunstein, Thomas 170, 240

Brecht, Bertolt 20, 31, 6869, 7374, 117

   Theory of Alienation 69, 120, 123

Breitenfeld, Annette 19, 221

Breuer, Siegfried 180, 192

British Occupational Zone 53

Buck–Morss, Susan 21

Büttner, Majoll 75

Butler, Octavia 32

Caldwell, Peter 104, 120

Campanella, Tommaso 249, 261262, 264

Campbell, Jr, John W. 244

Campbell, Joseph 226

Čapek, Karel 75, 176, 228

Cassandra (Christa Wolf) 230, 268, 271272

Censorship 19, 2325, 36, 62, 64, 7172, 7880, 9095, 118, 129, 172, 174, 176177, 182183, 204205, 214, 254

   Self–censorship 95, 250

   Use of Afterward/Postscript 62, 8990, 98, 138

Central Committee of the SED 24, 67

   See also Socialist Unity Party

Children’s Literature 92, 128, 195196, 221

Christianity 60

Clareson, Thomas D. 41

Clarke, Arthur C. 175

Clowes, Edith 261

Clute, John 101, 123, 137

Cold War 55, 68, 72, 78, 84, 8788, 96, 99, 109, 111, 137138, 145, 217, 233, 279, 281, 287

Comics 19, 79, 85, 100, 282

Communist Party of Germany (KPD) 45, 4748, 5152

Conference on Entertainment Art (1978) 186187, 217

Conference on Entertainment Art (1989) 219

Conference on the Literature of the Future 27, 105106, 121, 140

Construction novel (Aufbauroman) 85

Consumer 163, 180, 192, 219, 233, 255, 281

Cooper, James Fenimore 196

Costabile–Heming, Carol Anne 24, 94

Cybernetics 27, 34, 104108, 120, 128, 132, 138144, 147, 151, 241

Cyberpunk 232

Dahn, Danielle 190

Daniken, Erik van 113114, 183

Davis, John 123

Defoe, Daniel 196

Dehmelt, Norbert 92

Del Antonio, Eberhardt 16, 18, 34, 37, 86, 9193, 9798, 101, 105106, 110111, 131161, 179, 183, 196197, 245, 279

   See also Gigatum, Return of the Forefathers, and Titanus

Delany, Samuel 116

Democratic Socialism 239, 249, 274

Denazification 58, 70

Department of Literature and Publishing, Section on Fine Literature (Abteilung Literatur und Buchwesen, Sektor Schöne Literatur) 80, 92, 94, 98

Destruction of Reason, The (György Lukács) 69

Detective novel 1415, 19, 78, 81, 85, 88, 92, 115, 169170, 177, 230231 ← 322 | 323

Dialectic 34, 84, 105, 108, 117, 124, 132, 147, 160, 211, 226, 260261, 272

Dick, Philip 116, 175

Dietrich, Siegfried 75

Dietz Verlag 56

Dime novel 1415, 78, 94, 115, 177, 179

Disch, Thomas 175

Discourse

   Cultural 67, 73, 86, 174, 181, 189

   Polysemic/monosemic modes 70

   Science Fictional 17, 2328, 8384, 96, 174, 182, 187, 220225, 228229, 279280

   Utopia 83

Dörge, Rolf 99, 103, 145

Dolezahl, Erich 53

Dominik, Hans 19, 26, 34, 4144, 5253, 5758, 6465, 8485, 87, 96, 123, 138, 142

Dominowa Verlag 111

Dorn Brose, Eric 123

Dream Master, The (Angela and Karlheinz Steinmüller) 35, 230, 234, 237275, 281

Dreaming 7173, 106, 132, 237238, 242243, 246275

Dürrenmatt, Friedrich 145

Dymschiz, Alexander 46, 51

Dystopia 19, 29, 71, 8283, 122, 124, 131, 205, 221, 225227, 230232, 247, 271, 287

Earth Without Night (H.L. Fahlberg) 67

East Germany, Foundation of 67

Ebert, Günther 92, 105

Economic Miracle 147

Efremov, Ivan 34, 53, 110, 113, 139, 144, 146, 176, 182

Eichler, Gerhard 9698

Einheit 222, 229

Einhorn, Hinnerk 18, 229

Einstein, Albert 90, 140, 143

Eisler, Hans 73

Emmerich, Wolfgang 67, 6970, 95, 109, 117, 165166, 217, 225

Engels, Friedrich 47, 71

Enlightenment 17, 34, 69, 7374, 137, 166, 169, 200202, 242, 252

Enskat, Fritz 26, 56, 6265, 8485

Entertainment Novel (Unterhaltungs roman) 7482

   Conference on Entertainment Art 186187

Entner, Heinz 187

Estrangement method (Verfremdunstechnik) 69

Fable 29, 195, 197

Fahlberg, H.L. pseudo. See Hans Werner Fricke

Fairy tale 29, 70, 128, 169, 195, 202203, 209, 238

Family Legal Code (Familiengesetz buch) 154

Fans/Fan Clubs 20, 28, 30, 37, 7980, 114, 175176, 179180, 181188, 190, 220221, 223225

   Contact with Western Fan Clubs 182

   Secret Police Surveillance of 192193

   Subversion of Publishing System 25, 36, 181182

Fantastic literary form 16, 26, 28, 3033, 70, 73, 8390, 107108, 119, 122123, 141, 166168, 179, 195, 221222, 225227, 237238, 243, 245, 282

   Conflict with socialist realism 26, 71, 8191, 107108, 119, 195215, 226

   See also Ambiguous Utopia

Fantasy 116

   Anglo–American tradition 244

   Science Fantasy 28, 35, 230, 238, 242249, 287 ← 323 | 324

Fanzines 79, 223225

Feinstein, Joshua 51, 120

Feix, Gerhard 79

Fickelscherer , Helmut 174

Film, Science Fiction 15, 19, 4445, 57, 67, 113114, 155, 174, 191, 232, 243245, 256

Fischer, Ludwig, 17

Fischer, William 4044, 64

Fisher, Peter 4547

Förster, Werner 17, 19, 174, 221

Foltin, Friedrich 18

Formalism

   Debates 6869, 94

   Russian 30

Foucault, Michel 23, 33

Fox, Thomas 58

Franke, Herbert 177, 182

Free German Youth (Freie Deutsche Jugend, FDJ) 93, 99, 233

French Occupational Zone 53

Freud, Sigmund 201, 203204

Fricke Hans, Werner 27, 67, 81, 88, 91

Frink, Helen 91

Fröhlich sein und singen 75, 100

Frühauf, Klaus 173, 287288

Frye, Northrop 272

Fühmann, Franz 28, 89, 166, 191192, 217, 225227

Fuhrmann, Rainer 174, 230, 287

Fulbrook, Mary 2223

Future

   Alternate 25, 71, 81, 122123

   Subversive potential of 25, 71, 8183, 107108

Futurology (Prognostik) 105, 108109

Gagarin, Yuri 101

Gaida, Edith 78

Gebrüder Weiss Verlag 5253

Geelhaar, Anne 146

“Gegenwartsroman” (Novel of the Present) 82, 105, 119, 186

Generation 101, 132133, 179, 187, 196, 207, 223, 225, 229, 231

Genre 21, 78, 84, 106

Gentikow, Barbara 17

German Writers’ Union (DSV) 2728, 67, 9293, 95, 105, 115, 124, 174175, 185, 198, 220, 241, 255

   Committee on Utopian Literature (Arbeitskreis Utopische Literatur) 112, 183, 187188

   Seventh German Writers’ Conference 168

Gernsback, Hugo 40

Gibson, William 232

Gigantum (Eberhardt Del Antonio) 91, 93, 9597, 134, 138, 144, 156

Gilliam, Terry 232

Glasnost 217, 233

Glenn, John 191

Gobsch, Hanns 45

Göhler, Olaf 180

Goetz, Ursula 74

Golden Sphere, The (Ludwig Turek) 5662, 64, 89

Der Golem 222

Görlich, Günter 180

Gorbachev, Mikhail 217, 233, 238239, 259, 273

Graf, Oskar Maria 49

Graves, Peter 117

Grotesque 34, 122, 166

Habermas, Jürgen 188

Hacks, Peter 117118

Häußler, Hubert 79

Hager, Kurt 165, 218219

Haines, Gerd 221

Hall, Stuart 20, 8687

Hanke, Helmut 217218

Haraway, Donna 32

Harbou, Thea von 26, 44, 238

Hardel, Gerhard 75 ← 324 | 325

Hartung, Hans–Joachim 75

Hartung, Thomas 19, 36, 221, 232

Hauswald, Gerd 67, 8182

Hebdige, Richard 20

Hegen, Hannes 85, 100

Heidtmann, Horst 18, 36, 46, 5354, 72, 7879, 85, 92, 96, 109, 173

Hein, Herta 92, 100, 115

Heinlein, Robert 175176

Heinrich, Reinhard 283

Hell, Julia 33, 137, 150, 280

Hennig, Gerd 18, 98

Herbert, Frank 144, 175

Hertwig, Kurt 80

Herzfelde, Wieland 49

Heym, Stefan 100

Hienger, Jörg 17

Hitler, Adolf 42

Hochmuth, Arno 18, 115, 229

Höger, Alfons 42, 44

Hoffmann, E.T.A. 29, 34, 39, 122, 166, 195, 200201, 215, 242

Hoffmann, Michael 219220

Hoggart, Richard 20

Hohendahl, Peter 166

Hohlfeld, Carsten 170, 224, 240

Honecker, Erich 24, 28, 116, 163165, 174, 178, 186, 192, 217

Horkheimer, Max 2021

Horstmann, Hubert 111

Hungarian Uprising 134

Hutschenreuther, Bernd 184

Huxley, Aldous 177, 232

Ideology 2324, 33, 76, 81, 88, 129, 131134, 137, 140141, 164, 205, 212213, 219, 245, 251262, 266273, 279

If We in 1918… (Walter Müller) 46

Illing, Werner 47

Imprisoned at the Top of the World. Lost in the North Sea (Fritz Enskat) 56, 6265, 8485

Independent Social Democratic Party (USPD) 48

Innenhofer, Roland 39, 238

International Airplane Race, The (Hans Dominik) 41, 52

International Science Fiction Society 79

International Workers Publisher (Internationaler Arbeiterverlag, IAV) 50

Internationale, Die 48

Invincible are Helpless, The (Heiner Rank) 170172

The Iron Heel (Jack London) 54

Ivanov, Valentin 53

Jäger, Manfred 46, 50, 68, 76, 101, 178, 217

Jähn, Sigmund 191

Jaggi, Narendra 89

James, Edward 29, 116

Jameson, Fredric 14, 17, 21, 106, 111, 131, 137, 139, 199, 250

Jeschke, Wolfgang 177, 281

Joho, Wolfgang 8081

Jorgensen, Sven–Aage 18

Jugend und Technik 36, 75, 77, 92, 99100, 181

“Jugendweihe” 99

Junge Welt 75

Junker, Harald 246

Kafka, Franz 120, 123, 228

Kagle, Steven 29

Kaiser, Karl 101, 191

Kannapin, Detlef 19

KAP Series 116

Keiner, Reinhold 45

Kellermann, Bernhard 46

Ketterer, David 272

Kettlitz, Hardy 180

Ketzer, H.-J. 219220

Khrushchev, Nikita 104, 145

Kinderbuchverlag 94 ← 325 | 326

Kipphardt, Reinar 145

Kitsch 7476

Klaus, Georg 104, 120

Klauss, Klaus 233

Klotz, Udo 14, 20, 93, 190, 224, 246

Kohl, Helmut 281

Kollditz, Gottfried 15, 112

“Konfliktlosigkeit” 156, 159

Krämer, Ralf 175, 181, 185

Krämer, Reinhold 18

Krakauer, Siegfried 44

Kramer, Thomas 19, 85

Krauss, Werner 76

Kreuzinger, Frederick 272

Kriese, Reinhard 28, 232

Kristeva, Julia 238

Kroczeck, H. 99100

Kröger, Alexander pseudo. See Helmut Routschek

Krohn, Rolf 170, 182183, 185

Krupkat, Günther 110111, 113114, 179, 183, 187

Kruschel, Karsten 14, 1920, 25, 92, 94, 124, 172, 179, 192, 205, 221222, 283, 288

Kuhn, Anna 249

Kultureller Beirat 52

Kulturbund 28, 45, 51, 67, 93, 164, 175, 181, 217, 220221, 223

   Conference on Entertainment Art 186187, 217

   Science Fiction Workgroup 186

   Special Meeting on Science Fiction 183186

Kunert, Günter 2728, 128129, 166167

Kunkel, Klaus 75, 86

Kurella, Alfred 76

Lagin, Lasar 53

Lang, Fritz 4445

Lange, Fritz 18, 79

Lange, Hans Friedrich 56

Lasswitz, Kurd 26, 29, 3941, 43, 57, 61, 62, 65, 241

League of Proletarian Revolutionary Writers (Bund Proletarisch– Revolutionärer Schriftsteller) 4950

Le Guin, Ursula K. 32, 177, 222, 231, 243244

Lehmann, G.K. 219220

Lem, Stanislaw 14, 27, 75, 8283, 110, 113, 116, 121, 123, 125127, 169, 171, 182, 208209, 226, 243

Leman, Alfred 229230

Lenin, Vladimir 46, 71, 106, 262

Lenz, Ehrenfried 79

Levisite, or The Only Just War (Johannes Becher) 4546, 58, 60

Lewerenz, Walter 8687

Lewis, C.S. 244

Lhande, Pierre 42

Lichtjahr 221223, 228, 230, 244

Lindenberg, Bernd 84

Lingfeld, Norbert 17

Linkskurve, Die 4950, 55

List of Banned Books (Liste der auszusondernen Literatur) 52

Literature

   See Fantastic Literature, Mass Literature, Popular Literature, Science Fiction, Socialist Unity Party Cultural Policy, “Trivialliteratur,” Utopia

Little Organon for the Theater (Bertolt Brecht) 74

Loele, Konrad 45

London, Jack 54

Looking Backward (Edward Bellamy) 55

Lorenz, Peter 28, 174, 232

Ludwig, Karin 92, 100, 115

Lukács, György 69, 74, 76, 167

Luthardt, Ernst–Otto 231 ← 326 | 327

Mabee, Barbara 17

Maetzig, Kurt 15, 110, 113, 146, 155

Malik Verlag 49, 56

Mallinckrodt, Anita 13, 18, 4950, 5556, 101, 115, 179

Manhattan Project 137

Mannheim, Karl 260

Mardicke, Fritz 53, 64

Marken, Wolfgang, pseudo. See Fritz Mardicke

Mars (planet) 40, 61, 110, 112, 127128

Marx, Karl 71, 188

Marxism–Leninism 1921, 3436, 5051, 5960, 7071, 76, 84, 103, 106, 117, 124, 132133, 140, 143, 147, 164, 186, 189, 195, 214, 234

   Emancipation of Women 34, 147156

Mass Culture 1921, 39, 49, 52, 143, 165, 175, 181, 184, 218, 220

Mate, Rudolph 113

Matzer, Michael 14, 20, 93, 190, 224

May, Karl 19, 43, 65, 84, 114

McCaffrey, Anne 231, 244

Mechtel, Hartmut 28, 222, 228229, 244

Memory 143, 245246, 277278, 280

Merkel, Ina 149, 154

Metropolis (Thea von Harbou) 44

Meyenburg, Anna 49

Michalz, Stefan 79

Mielke, Heinz 75

Mielke, Stasi Mielke 188

Militärverlag 93, 179

Miller, Walter 175

Ministry of Culture (Kulturministerium) 76, 93, 115, 124, 165, 183, 218, 220

Mitteldeutscher Verlag 94, 118

Modleski, Tania 21

Möckel, Klaus 28, 169

Moorcock, Michael 116

More, Sir Thomas 2930, 55, 73, 120, 124, 249, 262

Morgner, Irmtraud 146, 155, 160

Mosaik (Hannes Hegen) 19, 85, 100, 282

Moylan, Thomas 30, 124

Müller, Heiner 22, 225

Müller, Horst 110111, 138

Müller, Paul Alfred 53

Müller, Walter 46

Myth 29, 70, 168, 228, 238, 246, 272

Nagl, Manfred 1718, 4142, 44, 53, 64, 164

National Socialism 14, 26, 42, 44, 5253, 58, 60, 6465, 74, 88, 123, 127, 134, 200, 261, 283

Nationalism, East German 34, 43, 64, 6869, 88, 101, 103, 116, 133138, 166, 191, 227

Nesvadba, Josef 121, 126, 176

Neue Abenteuer, Das Series 55, 75, 113, 179

Neue Deutsche Literatur 80, 222

Neumann, Hans–Peter 15, 20, 56, 80, 115, 170, 179180, 183, 223225

New Course (NK) 76, 134, 136

New Economic System (NÖS/ NÖSPL) 103104, 134, 136

Niche Mentality 28, 188193, 220, 230

Nutz, Walter 19

Obrutchev, Vladimir 75

Office of Literature and Publishing (Amt für Literatur und Verlagswesen) 67, 93

Oppenheimer, Robert 137

Orthmann, Edwin 177

Orwell, George 226, 245, 278279, 287

Ostalgia 277, 282, 287

Osten, Ludwig, pseudo. See Fritz Mardicke ← 327 | 328

Pal, George 113

Parrinder, Patrick 84

Paschke, Rudi 75

Peace Movement 198

Pehlke, Michael 17

Penley, Constance 21

Perestroika 217, 233, 238, 259

Perkins Gilman, Charlotte 30

Perry Rhodan 42

Piercy, Marge 32, 125

Plan Mentality 99100

Plato 2930, 249

Play, Notion of 35, 196215, 243

Poe, Edgar Allen 29, 122, 244

Popular Front (Volksfront) 51

Popular Literature 1722, 13, 71, 73, 218, 280

   Center and Periphery 2122

   East German official definition of 7483, 115, 184

   Gender 77, 221

   High vs. Low debate 16, 2021, 71, 7677, 115, 218, 280

   Party Acknowledgement of Importance of 115

   Reader Health 19, 136, 178, 184, 186, 218

   Socialist 4752, 5556, 164, 218219

   Soviet 22

Prague Spring 117, 120, 198

Pratchet, Terry 282

Prenzlauer Berg 22, 230231

Principle of Hope, The (Ernst Bloch) 7173, 106

Production novel (Produktionromane) 85

Prognostik, See Futurology Prokop, Gerd 28, 170, 231

Propaganda 25, 52, 7677, 101, 155, 184, 280

Public and Private Spheres 188189, 211, 213, 280

Publishing 25, 36, 9198

   Application for Publication (Druckgenehmigung) 9498

Paper shortage 52, 9192, 178179

Role of Editor 25, 30, 36, 118119, 172, 176, 220223

Quarber Merkur 200, 222

Rabkin, Eric 29

Radway, Janice 21

Rank, Heiner (pseudo. Heiner Heindorff and A.G. Petermann) 28, 121, 170172, 179

Raumpatrouille 164

Rasch, Carlos 91, 9596, 106, 110, 112114, 119, 138, 146, 152, 164, 179, 181, 222

Reading Strategies 36, 190

Reagan, Ronald 233

Realism

   See Fantastic Literature, Science Fiction, Socialist Realism, or Utopia

Red Cultural Front 49

Redlin, Ekkehard 90, 94, 97, 101, 118121, 133134, 171, 176, 178, 183185, 189, 208, 221222, 254, 282, 287288

Reid, J.H. 17

Reifenberg, Alfred 42

Reinl, Harald 114

Return of the Forefathers (Eberhardt Del Antonio) 34, 131161

Richter, Karl–Ludwig 108

Roddenbery, Gene 146, 164

Röcken, Kurt Walter 53

Romance novel 78

Romanticism

   German 27, 34, 69, 7374, 123, 166167, 195, 242245

   Uncanny, The 34, 199215, 242243 ← 328 | 329

Rote Fahne, Die 49

Rottensteiner, Franz 17, 222

Routschek, Helmut 91, 95, 112113, 161, 173, 179180, 187188, 193, 197, 233234, 283285, 288

Russ, Joanna 32, 125

“Sagen von Unirdischen” (Anna Seghers) 167

Saiäns Fiktschen (Franz Fühmann) 28, 89, 191192, 225227

“Sandmännchen” 191, 282

Sargent, Lyman Tower 71

Satire 27, 34, 122, 125129, 197215, 226

Scheffler, Klaus 20, 80, 170, 183, 223225

Schierlich, Walter 8283, 105

Schiller, Friedrich 117

Schittly, Dagmar 116

Schlegel, Egon 15

Schlösser, Hans 6162

Scholes, Robert 29

Schröder, Gustav 19, 5253, 115, 121, 164, 177, 221

Schubbe, Elimar 68, 7677

Schulmeister, Karl Heinz 223

Schulpost, Die 75

Schulte–Sasse, Jochen 17

Schulz, Hans–Joachim 18

“Schund” and “Schmutz” 4849, 7779, 94, 115

Schuster, Bernhard 75

Science and Technology 24, 29, 96, 99102, 245, 247

   “Future Industries” 103

   Progress 33, 132138, 140

   Scientific and Technological Revolution (WTR) 103104, 109, 140, 148, 166, 173

Science Fiction

   Anglo/American 14, 54, 59, 116, 123124, 141, 145, 174177, 231233, 243, 247, 278, 280

Bulgarian 176

Children’s 15, 77, 80, 8486

Cybernetic Theory 104108, 120, 128, 132, 138144

Czechoslovakian 14, 176

Difference from Fantasy Literature 84, 238, 244245, 280

East German

   Alien 19

   Articulation of the Individual 239240, 249254, 259, 263265, 269, 274

   Clichés 111, 112, 199

   Circulation Rates 15, 179

   Colonial Critique 202203, 254

   Family in 132, 151161

   Gender in 19, 32, 3435, 77, 91, 115, 123, 132, 146161, 168169, 206, 221, 230, 239, 265275

Growth in Demand 180, 190

   Growth in Publications 177180

   New Wave 27, 112, 115126

   Pedagogical Function of 19, 24, 49, 8081, 95, 134

   Portrayal of Americans 111112

   Portrayal of Soviets 111112

   Prejudice Against 17, 190192

   See also Mass Culture and “Trivialiteratur”

   Race 146, 202

   Reader Profile 115, 180

   Sales in West Germany 179

Environmentalism 195, 202, 247248, 257, 274275, 279

Estrangement Effect (Verfremdungseffekt) 27, 3132, 120121, 228, 254, 279

French 39, 41, 43, 65, 84, 89, 122, 173, 238

Literature 24 ← 329 | 330

   Modernity 33

   National Socialist 26, 53

   Paleontology 113114

   Polish 14, 75, 8283, 110, 113, 139, 176

   Publishers in East Germany 9394 Russian/Soviet 14, 29, 5354, 60, 105106, 110, 113, 121123, 139, 176, 182

   Soviet Occupational Zone 26, 5065

   Space Opera 87, 141, 233

   Thought Experiment/Game 35, 82, 126, 184, 208

   Utopian Elements of 3035, 71, 76, 8190, 221

   Utopia Through Realism 35, 225230, 245

   Young Adult 56, 77, 86

   Weimar Republic 26, 4147, 58

   West German 14, 105, 145, 177, 218, 222, 243, 247

   Western Allied Powers 53, 283

Science Fiction Club of Germany (SFCD) 80, 182

Das Science Fiction Jahr 222

Sckerl, Adolf 19, 40, 104, 176177, 183187, 207, 221

Secret Police (Staatssicherheitsdienst, or

Stasi) 22, 181, 188, 192193, 283

Seemann, Horst 15

Seghers, Anna 28, 146, 166168

“Self–Experiment” (Christa Wolf) 155, 168, 191, 267

Shayol Verlag 180, 241, 282, 286

Sheckley, Robert 175

Sheer, K.H. 79

Shelley, Mary 29, 177, 228

Siberia 113

Sieg, Paul Eugen 53

Siegmund, Wolfgang 224

Sielaff, Eric 18, 74

Silverberg, Robert 116

Simak, Clifford 175

Simon, Erik 20, 53, 85, 88, 104, 110111, 114, 118, 140, 169, 173, 175, 180, 182183, 186187, 189190, 196, 222, 232233, 238, 241, 283, 288

Sinclair, Upton 59

Sixtus, Albert 56

Snegov, Sergei 176

Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 4547

Socialist Personality 53, 109, 115, 127128, 132, 146, 156159, 212

   Communist Superwoman 91, 148161

   Communist Supercosmonaut 109, 111

Socialist Realism 2426, 52, 65, 6870, 74, 8290, 9596, 118, 166167, 195215, 226

Socialist Unity Party (SED) 55, 6770, 72, 7677, 83

   Central Committee of 93, 124

Eleventh Plenary of 115116

Fifth Conference of 69

Fourth Conference of 165

   Cultural Policy 2426, 28, 7096, 98, 101102, 165, 178179, 217220, 223, 229, 233, 253254 See also Science Fiction

   Party Congress of

Eighth 163

Fifth 98, 101

Seventh 115

Sixth 108

Third 68

Twelfth 219

   Popular Science Policy 98102

Soldvieri, Stefan 19

Sonntag 81, 105, 164

Soviet Military Administration in Germany (SMAD) 46, 5065, 149 ← 330 | 331

Soviet Occupational Zone (SBZ) 26, 5065, 123

Soviet Union 46, 48, 6769, 7273, 76, 87, 99104, 110111, 139, 142, 144, 161, 174175, 191, 217, 229, 233, 238

   Journals from 121

   Twelfth Congress of the Soviet Communist Party 106

Space Exploration 27, 98101, 110111, 137138, 190191

Spaceship, The (Arthur Bagemühl) 84

Spannend erzählt Series 15, 113

Spittel, Olaf 20, 53, 85, 88, 104, 110111, 118, 169, 173, 187, 196, 200, 221222, 226227, 232233, 241

Sputnik 98101, 109, 111, 133, 137, 139

Spy novel 85, 138

Stalin, Josef 52, 76, 104, 254, 261

Stanislaw Lem Club 114, 170, 175, 181188, 221

Star Betrays the Culprit, A (H.L. Fahlberg) 81, 88

Staritz, Dietrich 52, 68, 76, 163

Stasi, See Secret Police

State, Concept of 2324, 91, 9394

Steinmüller, Karlheinz 73, 175, 228229

––, Karlheinz and Angela 1516, 20, 28, 35, 37, 90, 92, 111, 116, 161, 174, 177, 179180, 187, 197, 222, 229231, 233234, 237275, 280281, 286

Stephens, Anthony 262

Stern, Viktor 90

Stites, Richard 47, 262

Strugatsky, Boris and Arkady 121, 127128, 171, 176, 182, 209, 243

Subversion 16, 33, 221, 279280

   Degrees of Subversion 22, 33

   Literary form and 70, 172

   Utopia and 7173

   See also Ambiguous Utopia, the Fantastic, and Satire

Suhrkamp Verlag 198

Suttner, Bertha von 39

Suvin, Darko 17, 31, 39, 84, 87, 121, 196, 208, 222

SWA Verlag 53

Swift, Johnathan 173

Szameit, Michael 28, 97, 230231, 234, 282, 286

Taut, Heinrich 107108, 110, 119, 121, 254

Technikus 100

“Technischer Zukunftsroman” (technical novel of the future) 43, 47, 63, 106

Television, influence of 19, 115, 164, 220

Temperamente 222

Teng, Tais 244

Tenth Planet, The (Sergei Belyayev) 54

Tereshkova, Valentina 101, 147

Third Way 230, 249

Thost, Werner 79

Titanus (Eberhardt Del Antonio) 98, 111, 135, 138141, 151

Todorov, Tzvetan 3032, 195, 209

Tolkien, J.R.R. 244

Tolstoy, Alexei 110, 144, 146, 176

Trip to the Planet of the Exhilarated (Gehard Branstner) 27, 127129, 243

“Trivialliteratur” 19, 29, 49, 7382, 101, 184, 189, 192

Tsiolkovsky, Konstantin 99100

Tulpanov, Sergei 51

Tunnel, The (Bernhard Kellermann) 46

Turek, Ludwig 26, 5662, 6465, 89, 101, 111

Tuschel, Karl–Heinz 112113, 173174, 182, 287288 ← 331 | 332

Two Planets (Kurd Lasswitz) 40, 61

Tzschaschel, Rolf 47

Ulbrich, Bernd 28, 169, 222

Ulbricht, Walter 24, 27, 52, 68, 98, 101, 103, 105, 108, 116, 149, 163164

Ultrasymet Remains Secret (Heinz Vieweg) 8688

Uncanny Manifestations on Omega XI (Johanna and Günter Braun) 34, 169, 193, 195215, 248

Unsere Welt 75

Utopia

   Ambiguous Utopia 2728, 34, 124126, 166173, 195215, 230, 237275

   Anti–Utopia 122123, 226

   Collective Versus Individual 35, 52, 61, 64, 8788, 104, 112, 146, 151152, 165, 167, 211213, 228231, 239240, 249275, 279

   Critical Utopia 124

   Cybernetics 107108

   Definition of 16, 24, 2935, 71, 8182, 119120, 184185

   Dynamic versus Static 35, 239240, 249251, 260, 274

   Estrangement Effect 16, 120

   Marxist–Leninist Utopia 58, 76, 8191, 96, 186, 204

   Poetics 117118

   Utopian Realism 27, 34, 8391, 109113, 124, 131161, 231, 245

   Utopian Socialist 69, 73, 173

   Utopia Through Realism 35, 225230

   See also Ernst Bloch, Dystopia, and Third Way

Utopolis (Werner Illing) 47

Vejdêlek, Cêstmir 121

Venus (planet) 5960, 110

Verlag Das Neue Berlin 15, 27, 90, 94, 101, 113, 118, 178179, 183, 189, 200, 208, 221222, 286

Verlag Kultur und Fortschritt 94, 116

Verlag Neues Leben 15, 56, 75, 86, 9395, 99100, 113, 177, 178179, 233, 286287

Verlag Volk und Welt 53, 94, 169, 179

Verlag Vorwärts 56

Verne, Jules 14, 29, 39, 41, 43, 65, 84, 89, 122, 173, 238

Vieweg, Heinz 27, 86, 112

Vogel, Frank 15

Voigt, Rosa 39

Vollprecht, Sabine 19, 221

Vonau, Ingolf 180, 191

Walker, William 17, 211

War Novel 19, 78, 233

“Warnungsroman” (Novel of Warning) 122123

   See also Dystopia Watson, Ian 282

Weaver, Sigourney 32

Weimar Republic 4147, 6770, 7374, 76

Weimarer Beiträge 222

Weise, Lothar 111, 138

Weitbrecht, Wolf 173

Welck, Stephen 101, 191

Welles, Orson 59

Wells, H.G. 29, 59, 122, 177, 202, 229

Western 78

Wiechmann, Gerhard 19

Wierling, Dorothee 148

Wilke, Ursula 146

Williams, Raymond 37, 239

Wissen und Leben 100

Wloch, Karl 80 ← 332 | 333

Wolf, Christa 22, 28, 146, 155, 160, 166, 168169, 191192, 230, 240, 249, 267268, 272

Woollacott, Janet 21, 189190

Worker’s Literature (Arbeiterliteratur) 101, 115

Zamiatin, Yevgeny 238

Zapp, Arthur 45

Zaubertruhe, Die 75

Zetkin, Clara 55

Ziegfeld, Richard 125126

Ziergiebel, Herbert 118119, 138

Ziolkowski, Konstantin 99100

Zipes, Jack 204

Zschoche, Herrmann 15

Zschocke, Gerda 146 ← 333 | 334