Self-leadership has emerged as an important theory to substitute for designated leaders through utilizing the potential of every single employee. Studies that investigate the antecedents of this concept have generally focused on dispositional factors and neglected the contextual influences. This research aims to fill this gap by conducting two sequential studies. The quantitative part focuses on transformational leadership and high-performance work systems as situational and also on proactive personality as a dispositional antecedent of self-leadership. As outcomes, work engagement and organizational citizenship behavior are investigated. For the second part, in-depth interviews are conducted to broaden the set of possible antecedents and consequences of self-leadership.